Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

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Image of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

VisualDx images show variation in age, skin color, and disease stage. VisualDx has 69 images of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

Full text and additional images for Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease are available in the following VisualDx packages:

Pediatrics Complete

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ICD Codes

B08.8 – Other specified viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions

074.3 – Hand, foot and mouth disease


Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute, self-limited viral illness caused most commonly by Coxsackie virus A16, though it can be caused by other coxsackie viruses and enteroviruses. It predominantly affects children, but adults can also develop the disease. The incubation period is short, ranging from 3 to 6 days. The illness begins with a mild fever, sore throat and mouth, cough, headache, malaise, diarrhea, and occasionally arthralgias. One or two days after the onset of fever, small oral vesicles develop. Later, vesicles appear on the hands, feet, and, occasionally, the buttocks.

The disease is highly contagious and often spreads via aerosolized droplets, nasal or oral secretions, or fecal material. Epidemic outbreaks usually occur from June to October. Though HFMD is typically self-limited, it can be complicated by encephalitis and other life-threatening complications. These include interstitial pneumonia, myocarditis, meningoencephalitis, and spontaneous abortion. Complications more commonly arise when the infectious agent is an enterovirus.

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