Acanthosis nigricans in Child
AN is classified into 8 types:
I. Obesity-associated – Most common; linked to diabetes, insulin resistance, high body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome, etc.
II. Malignancy-associated / cutaneous paraneoplastic syndrome – Very rare in children, but has been documented with juvenile gastric adenocarcinoma (most common), Wilms tumor, and osteogenic sarcomas.
III. Drug-induced – Niacin (nicotinic acid) is the most closely associated medication, but AN can also be caused by oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, diethylstilbestrol, heroin, fusidic acid, methyltestosterone, protease inhibitors, and folate.
IV. Syndromic – Related to a specific syndrome, eg, HAIR-AN (hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans) syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or autoimmune-disease, among others.
V. Acral – Affects elbows, knees, and knuckles. Typically seen in healthy sub-Saharan African patients.
VI. Unilateral – Also called nevoid. Usually represents an epidermal nevus in childhood.
VII. Benign – Rare autosomal dominant form developing at birth or during childhood. Typically stabilizes or regresses during puberty.
VIII. Mixed – Any 2 or more of the above types combined.
L83 – Acanthosis nigricans
402599005 – Acanthosis nigricans
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
Drug Reaction Data