You have been logged out of VisualDx or your session has expired.

Please reload this page and sign into VisualDx to continue.

  VisualDx Mobile   Select Language

Get VisualDx Mobile

There are VisualDx mobile apps available for iOS and Android devices.

You will need a VisualDx account to use the mobile apps.

Already have an account? Sign In or
sign up for a free trial.

Users with VisualDx accounts earn CME credits for using VisualDx.

Already have an account? Sign In or
sign up for a free trial.

Create a Personal Account

E-mail (username)
Verify Password
First Name
Last Name

Personal Account Created

Mobile Access

You can now download VisualDx for your iOS and Android devices. Launch the VisualDx app from your device and sign in using your VisualDx personal account username and password.

CME Certification

Sign in with your personal account to earn and claim CME credits through VisualDx. Credits can be earned by building a differential or looking up a diagnosis.

Version: 7.13.1441   (build df7aed4)
Select Language

Select Region

Send us your feedback

This field is required

Oops! There was an issue during submission. Please try again. If the problem persists, email with your feedback.

Thank You!

We appreciate your feedback and you will be hearing from us soon.


Share This Page

Thank You!

We have sent an e-mail with a link to the current page.


E-mail This Patient Information Sheet

Thank You!

We have sent an e-mail with this patient information.


Image Contributors


  • Christine Ahn MD
    Carl Allen DDS, MSD
    Brandon Ayres MD
    Howard P. Baden MD
    Robert Baran MD
    Keira Barr MD
    Gregory J. Basura MD, Ph.D
    Donald Belsito MD
    Jeffrey D. Bernhard MD
    Jesse Berry MD
    Victor Blanco MD
    Benjamin R. Bohaty MD
    William Bonnez MD
    Sarah Brenner MD
    Robert A. Briggaman MD
    Robert Brodell MD
    Roman Bronfenbrener MD
    Walter Brooks MD
    William Buckley MD
    Philip Bulterys MD, PhD (candidate)
    Susan Burgin MD
    Sonya Burton MD
    Sean P. Bush MD, FACEP
    Jeffrey Callen MD
    Scott Camazine MD
    Michael Cardwell
    Shelley D. Cathcart MD
    Robert Chalmers MD, MRCP, FRCP
    Chia-Yu Chu MD, PhD
    Flavio Ciferri MD
    Maria Rosa Cordisco MD
    Noah Craft MD, PhD
    John T. Crissey MD
    Harold E. Cross MD, PhD
    Charles E. Crutchfield III MD
    Adriana Cruz MD
    Donna Culton MD, PhD
    Bart J. Currie MBBS, FRACP, DTM&H
    Chicky Dadlani MD
    Alexander Dane DO
    C. Ralph Daniel III MD
    Thomas Darling MD, PhD
    William Delaney MD
    Damian P. DiCostanzo MD
    Ncoza Dlova MD
    James Earls MD
    Libby Edwards MD
    Melissa K. Egge MD
    Charles N. Ellis MD
    Rachel Ellis MD
    David Elpern MD
    Nancy Esterly MD
    Stephen Estes MD
    E. Dale Everett MD
    Janet Fairley MD
    David Feingold MD
    Jennifer J. Findeis-Hosey MD
    Benjamin Fisher MD
    Henry Foong MBBS, FRCP
    David Foster MD, MPH
    Brian D. Foy PhD
    Michael Franzblau MD
    Vincent Fulginiti MD
    Sunir J. Garg MD, FACS
    Kevin J. Geary MD
    Lowell Goldsmith MD, MPH
    Sethuraman Gomathy MD
    Bernardo Gontijo MD, PhD
    Kenneth Greer MD
    Kenneth G. Gross MD
    Alan Gruber MD
    Nathan D. Gundacker MD
    Akshya Gupta MD
    Vidal Haddad MSC, PhD, MD
    Edward Halperin MD, MA
    Ronald Hansen MD
    John Harvey
    Rizwan Hassan MD
    Michael Hawke MD
    Jason E. Hawkes MD
    Peter W. Heald MD
    David G. Hicks MD
    Sarah Hocker DO
    Ryan J. Hoefen MD, PhD
    Li-Yang Hsu MD
    William Huang MD
    Sanjana Iyengar MD
    Alvin H. Jacobs MD
    Saagar Jadeja MD
    Shahbaz A. Janjua MD
    Joshua J. Jarvis MD
    Kit Johnson
    Zachary John Jones MD
    Robert Kalb MD
    A. Paul Kelly MD
    Henry Kempe MD
    Loren Ketai MD
    Sidney Klaus MD
    Ashwin Kosambia MD
    Jessica A. Kozel MD
    Carl Krucke
    Mario E. Lacouture MD
    Joseph Lam MD
    Alfred T. Lane MD
    Edith Lederman MD
    Nahyoung Grace Lee MD
    Pedro Legua MD, PhD
    Robert Levin MD
    Bethany Lewis MD
    Sue Lewis-Jones FRCP, FRCPCH
    Taisheng Li MD
    Christine Liang MD
    Shari Lipner MD, PhD
    Adam Lipworth MD
    Jason Maguire MD
    Mark Malek MD, MPH
    Jere Mammino DO
    Ricardo Mandojana MD
    Lynne Margesson MD
    Thomas J. Marrie MD
    Maydel Martinez MD
    Ralph Massey MD
    Patrick McCleskey MD
    Karen McKoy MD
    Thomas McMeekin MD
    Josette McMichael MD
    Somchai Meesiri MD
    Joseph F. Merola MD
    Mary Gail Mercurio MD
    Anis Miladi MD
    Larry E. Millikan MD
    Dan Milner Jr. MD
    Zaw Min MD
    Stephanie Montero
    Alastair Moore MD
    Keith Morley MD
    Dean Morrell MD
    Samuel Moschella MD
    Rehan Naseemuddin MD
    Taimor Nawaz MD
    Vic Newcomer MD
    John Nguyen MD
    Matilda Nicholas MD
    Thomas P. Nigra MD
    Steven Oberlender MD, PhD
    Maria Teresa Ochoa MD
    Art Papier MD
    Lawrence Parish MD
    Tanner Parrent MD
    Mukesh Patel MD
    Lauren Patty-Daskivich MD
    David Peng MD, MPH
    Robert Penne MD
    Nitipong Permpalung MD
    Miriam Pomeranz MD
    Doug Powell MD
    Harold S. Rabinovitz MD
    Christopher J. Rapuano MD
    Sireesha Reddy MD
    Angela Restrepo MD, PhD
    Bertrand Richert MD, PhD
    J. Martin Rodriguez, MD, FACP
    Theodore Rosen MD
    Misha Rosenbach MD
    Scott Schiffman MD
    Robert H. Schosser MD
    Glynis A. Scott MD
    Carlos Seas MD, MSc
    Deniz Seçkin MD
    Daniel Sexton MD
    Paul K. Shitabata MD
    Tor Shwayder MD, FAAP, FAAD
    Elaine Siegfried MD
    Gene Sienkiewicz MD
    Christye Sisson
    Philip I. Song MD
    Mary J. Spencer MD, FAAP
    Lawrence B. Stack MD
    Sarah Stein MD
    William Van Stoecker MD
    Frances J. Storrs MD
    Erik J. Stratman MD
    Lindsay C. Strowd MD
    Erika Summers MD
    Belinda Tan MD, PhD
    Robert Tomsick MD
    Hensin Tsao MD, PhD
    Richard P. Usatine MD
    Jenny Valverde MD
    Vishalakshi Viswanath MD
    Susan Voci MD
    Lisa Wallin ANP, FCCWS
    Douglas Walsh MD
    Ryan R. Walsh MD
    George Watt MD
    Clayton E. Wheeler MD
    Sally-Ann Whelan MS, NP, CWOCN
    Jan Willems MD, PhD
    James Henry Willig MD, MPH
    Karen Wiss MD
    Vivian Wong MD, PhD
    Sook-Bin Woo MS, DMD, MMSc
    Jamie Woodcock MD
    Stephen J. Xenias MD
    Nathaniel Yohannes
    Lisa Zaba MD
    Vijay Zawar MD
    Bonnnie Zhang MD
    Carolyn Ziemer MD
    Jeffrey P. Zwerner MD, PhD


  • Am. Journal of Trop. Med & Hygiene
  • Armed Forces Pest Management Board
  • Blackwell Publishing
  • Bugwood Network
  • Centers For Disease Control and Prevention
  • Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Mèdicas (CIDEIM)
  • Dermatology Online Journal
  • East Carolina University (ECU), Division of Dermatology
  • International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Massachusetts Medical Society
  • Oxford University Press
  • Radiological Society of North America
  • Washington Hospital Center
  • Wikipedia
  • World Health Organization
ContentsSynopsisCodesLook ForDiagnostic PearlsDifferential Diagnosis & PitfallsBest TestsManagement PearlsTherapyReferencesView all Images (2)
Acoustic neuroma
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Acoustic neuroma

Print Images (2)
Contributors: Madeleine Strohl MD, Paul C. Bryson MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


Acoustic neuromas, also known as vestibular schwannomas, are intracranial tumors that arise from the Schwann cell sheath of the eighth cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve. The incidence of acoustic neuromas in the United States is 10-20 per 1 000 000 people. Acoustic neuromas account for approximately 8% of intracranial tumors in adults and represent 80% of all tumors of the cerebellopontine angle. Ninety percent of tumors are unilateral, affecting the left and right sides equally. The median age at diagnosis is 50 years. The tumors are rare in children, except for patients with neurofibromatosis type II. There is a 3:2 female to male ratio. All races and ethnicities are equally affected.

The most common presenting symptoms are one-sided hearing loss and/or tinnitus. Vertigo and disequilibrium are relatively uncommon presentations. As the tumor expands, it may compress the facial or trigeminal nerves, resulting in decreased facial sensation or facial muscle weakness. Late complications include cerebellar and brainstem dysfunction as a result of compression. Obstructive hydrocephalus is also possible due to effacement of the fourth ventricle.

On physical exam, the Weber and Rinne tests and formal audiogram may be used to uncover unilateral sensorineural hearing impairment. Neurologic examination may reveal defects of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves, such as a decreased or absent corneal reflex or hypoesthesia. Romberg and Hall-Pike tests are typically normal.

Patients with neurofibromatosis type II classically develop bilateral acoustic neuromas at a young age. Other risk factors associated with the development of acoustic neuromas include childhood exposure to low dose radiation and a history of parathyroid adenoma.

Acoustic neuromas are typically slow-growing tumors. They usually grow at a rate of 2-4 mm/year, but can occasionally grow as rapidly as 2 cm/year. If treated with current techniques, patients have a very good prognosis with minimal complications. However, if left untreated, these tumors eventually lead to lethal brain stem compression or intracranial hypertension.

For more information on neurofibromatosis type II, see OMIM.


D33.3 – Benign neoplasm of cranial nerves

126949007 – Acoustic neuroma

Look For

Subscription Required

Diagnostic Pearls

Subscription Required

Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Other causes of unilateral hearing loss and/or tinnitus should be considered, although the demonstration of a cerebellopontine angle lesion on a contrast-enhanced MRI in the setting of unilateral hearing loss or tinnitus virtually rules out other causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, or vertigo. Laboratory testing can also help exclude these causes.
  • Cerebrovascular accident
  • Vertebrobasilar insufficiency
  • Meniere disease – Constellation of clinical symptoms including episodic vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus; requires all other causes ruled out
  • Benign positional vertigo – Vertigo experienced in specific positions, no hearing loss
  • Multiple sclerosis – Demonstration of plaques on MRI
  • Perilymphatic fistula – History of head injury, barotrauma, or heavy lifting; imaging may show fluid collection in region of round window recess
  • Viral cochleitis (see sensorineural deafness) – History of viral disease
  • Ototoxic drugs – Review medication history (aminoglycosides, some diuretics)
  • Thyrotoxicosis – Order TSH/T4 levels
  • Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (see sensorineural deafness) – Evaluation will reveal no underlying condition by history, examination, or imaging
Approximately 20% of tumors at the cerebellopontine angle are not acoustic neuromas. These conditions can be differentiated by their main presenting symptoms and differences on imaging.
  • Meningioma – Hearing loss is a less prominent symptom; often has a dural tail on MRI
  • Primary cholesteatoma – Presence of chronic drainage and granulation tissue in the ear canal and middle ear; CT is diagnostic modality of choice to evaluate bony defects
  • Epidermoid – Hearing loss is less prominent symptom; no enhancing component on MRI
  • Facial nerve schwannoma – Clinically associated with more prominent and earlier facial weakness; enhancement on MRI extends into the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve and facial canal
  • Trigeminal schwannoma – Clinically associated with more prominent facial numbness; enhancement on MRI does not extend into the internal acoustic meatus

Best Tests

Subscription Required

Management Pearls

Subscription Required


Subscription Required


Subscription Required

Last Updated: 06/21/2017
Copyright © 2018 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.
Acoustic neuroma
Print 2 Images
View all Images (2)
(with subscription)
Acoustic neuroma : Gait disturbance, Hearing loss, Tinnitus, Vertigo, Facial paresthesias
Clinical image of Acoustic neuroma
Copyright © 2018 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.