Addiction disorders
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Addiction disorders

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Contributors: Richard L. Barbano MD, PhD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


Addiction is characterized by the diminishing control over seeking a rewarding stimulus despite negative personal and interpersonal consequences. Eventually the initial reward may no longer be experienced as pleasurable. This is usually accompanied by craving for the stimulus, needing a higher dose to maintain effects (ie, tolerance), and withdrawal symptoms on abstinence.

While addiction commonly involves a substance (substance abuse disorders, eg, alcohol use disorder, cocaine use disorder, methamphetamine use disorder, opioid use disorder), it can also involve an activity, and thus there is overlap with and the differential would include impulse disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), in which there is loss of voluntary control over specific activities. Substance abuse includes increasing amounts of time spent in obtaining, taking, and recovering from the substance at the expense of time otherwise spent in other activities; unsuccessful efforts to decrease the substance use; and continuation despite recognizing its harmful effects. For many substances of abuse, genetic susceptibility is likely.

Studies support an increased association of addiction disorders among patients with comorbid schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and antisocial personality disorder. The course is variable and dependent on many factors including the particular substance of abuse, but patients with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses often have more prolonged courses, perhaps due to inadequate diagnosis and treatment of the comorbidity.


F10.20 – Alcohol dependence, uncomplicated
F11.20 – Opioid dependence, uncomplicated
F12.20 – Cannabis dependence, uncomplicated
F13.20 – Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence, uncomplicated
F14.20 – Cocaine dependence, uncomplicated
F16.20 – Hallucinogen dependence, uncomplicated

32709003 – Addiction


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Last Updated: 11/13/2018
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Addiction disorders
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Addiction disorders : Anxiety, Substance abuse, Compulsive behavior
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