ContentsSynopsisCodesLook ForDiagnostic PearlsDifferential Diagnosis & PitfallsBest TestsManagement PearlsTherapyReferences
Autism spectrum disorder
Print
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder

Print Images (1)
Contributors: Michael W. Winter MD, David Sullo MD, Paritosh Prasad MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Autism spectrum disorder is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities that predominantly affect social, communication, and behavioral skills, often with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. Symptoms typically present before age 2 years. Phenotype severity can vary considerably, with some patients having minimal to no verbal skills while other autistic individuals can function highly in the general population. Some patients have delayed milestones from birth, others plateau, and some demonstrate regression of communication and language skills. This spectrum includes conditions that were previously diagnosed individually, such as autistic disorder, pervasive development disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and Asperger disorder.

Clinical features include lack of social reciprocity, unawareness of others, and lack of interest and empathy for others. Patients may lack joint attention (social referencing), be unable to interpret nonverbal communication, or have difficulty with social relationships. They may exhibit restricting and repetitive behaviors, such as hand flapping, rocking, or walking on tiptoe. Affected individuals may be inflexible in specific daily routines or rituals. Many patients have aberrant sensory processing abilities highlighted by heightened sensitivity to texture, sounds, or touch. Other observed features include motor deficits, macrocephaly, speech difficulties (including nonverbal), and savant abilities.

Males are 4 times more likely to be affected. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has increased in recent years, although the underlying etiology is not well understood. There appear to be genetic factors and potentially environmental factors, although neither are clearly defined.

Affected patients will require specialist involvement and an individualized management plan.

Codes

ICD10CM:
F84.0 – Autistic disorder

SNOMEDCT:
408856003 – Autistic disorder

Look For

Subscription Required

Diagnostic Pearls

Subscription Required

Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Best Tests

Subscription Required

Management Pearls

Subscription Required

Therapy

Subscription Required

References

Subscription Required

Last Reviewed: 03/27/2019
Last Updated: 03/27/2019
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.
Autism spectrum disorder
Print 1 Images
Autism spectrum disorder
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.