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Body dysmorphic disorder
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Body dysmorphic disorder

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Contributors: Vivian Wong MD, PhD, Susan Burgin MD
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Synopsis

Body dysmorphic disorder, also known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric disorder characterized by distorted and unrealistic beliefs about one's physical appearance (skin, hair, nails, and/or weight).

Ritualistic behaviors, such as self-examinations at a reflective surface, picking, tanning, excessive grooming, camouflaging, and reassurance seeking, are characteristic. The shame, guilt, fear of negative criticism, and embarrassment from the imagined defect can impart a negative impact on the patient's social and professional life.

Patients may visit a dermatology clinic to address their self-image defects. In particular, acne, hair changes, wrinkles, pores, benign skin lesions, dyschromia, body habitus, and genital size are common complaints. Patients may seek appearance-restoring or modifying procedures to hide or alter the perceived abnormality. Despite multiple procedures, the patient could remain dissatisfied with the outcomes if body dysmorphic disorder is not addressed properly. Concomitant psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, addiction, social phobia, and personality disorder, are common. The prognosis is poor, and patients have varying levels of insight into their suboptimal quality of life.

Body dysmorphic disorder affects about 2% of the general population. The prevalence in dermatology patients is 5-10 times greater than that of the general population. The symptoms often start during adolescence, without any gender predilection. Unmarried or divorced patients may be at higher risk. A history of childhood adversity (eg, bullying, abuse) may be reported.

Codes

ICD10CM:
F45.22 – Body dysmorphic disorder

SNOMEDCT:
83482000 – Body dysmorphic disorder

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Last Updated: 08/21/2017
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Body dysmorphic disorder
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Body dysmorphic disorder : Compulsions
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