Cercarial dermatitis - Marine Exposures
There is a worldwide distribution, with human schistosomes more common in tropical climates (most commonly Schistosoma mansoni and S. hematobium).
Swimmer's itch typically presents as a pruritic rash on the skin 24 hours after exposure to water containing cercariae in endemic areas. The cercariae enter the stratum corneum and die within hours. The rash is associated with moderate pruritus that is self-limiting, but it may persist for several weeks.
Rare presentations have been reported on the upper extremities after cleaning fish tanks. Heavy exposure to human schistosomes may result in acute schistosomiasis.
There are no age, sex, or ethnic predilections.
B65.3 – Cercarial dermatitis
- Pseudomonas folliculitis (hot tub folliculitis) also occurs beneath the bathing suit.
- Seabather's eruption
- Seaweed dermatitis is more severe and leads to blistering and desquamation; it is also endemic to Hawaii where seabather's eruption has not been reported.
- "Dogger bank itch" (Bryozoa dermatitis) is an algae-induced seaweed dermatitis. This condition is found in dockworkers along the North Sea and the Mediterranean. The lesions are chronic and can be disabling.
- Other ocean-dwelling organisms (hydromedusae, crab larvae)
- Contact dermatitis
- Insect bites
- Exposure to larvae of crustaceans or remnants of jellyfish tentacles
- Contact dermatitis (poison ivy, oak)