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Chilblains in Child
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Chilblains in Child

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Contributors: Amy Swerdlin MD, Belinda Tan MD, PhD, Noah Craft MD, PhD
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Synopsis

Chilblains, also known as pernio, is characterized as erythematous / violaceous nodules that present a few days after exposure to a cold and wet environment. It is typically observed during the fall and winter in seasonal climates. Lesions usually appear over a few hours and resolve over 7-14 days. They are initially pruritic and sometimes painful.

Chilblains is most common in children and young to middle-aged women. Lesions are typically self-limited but may lead to recurrent disease. Chronic pernio is characterized by persistent lesions after repeated exposure to the cold. Chilblains results from an abnormal inflammatory and vascular response to cold temperatures, especially when the environment is also humid. Cold temperatures lead to the constriction of small arteries and veins in the skin, and re-warming results in edema. Blistering, pustules, crusting, and ulceration can occur in severe cases.

Equestrian perniosis is a rare variant that usually affects the thighs and buttocks of (most often female) horseback riders. It may affect individuals in other recreational scenarios involving cold exposure and tight-fitting clothing, such as motorcycle riders or outdoor enthusiasts. Histology is generally consistent with that of classic perniosis.

Several conditions may predispose children to pernio, such as cryoproteinemia, anorexia nervosa (typically in adolescent females), excessive cold exposure, systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid antibodies.

Codes

ICD10CM:
T69.1XXA – Chilblains, initial encounter

SNOMEDCT:
37869000 – Chilblains

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Last Updated: 09/14/2017
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Chilblains in Child
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Chilblains : Acral, Burning skin sensation, Cold exposure, Cyanosis, Erythema, Fingers, Toes
Clinical image of Chilblains
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