Chilblains in Child
Chilblains is most common in children and young to middle-aged women. Lesions are typically self-limited but may lead to recurrent disease. Chronic pernio is characterized by persistent lesions after repeated exposure to the cold. Chilblains results from an abnormal inflammatory and vascular response to cold temperatures, especially when the environment is also humid. Cold temperatures lead to the constriction of small arteries and veins in the skin, and re-warming results in edema. Blistering, pustules, crusting, and ulceration can occur in severe cases.
Equestrian perniosis is a rare variant that usually affects the thighs and buttocks of (most often female) horseback riders. It may affect individuals in other recreational scenarios involving cold exposure and tight-fitting clothing, such as motorcycle riders or outdoor enthusiasts. Histology is generally consistent with that of classic perniosis.
Several conditions may predispose children to pernio, such as cryoproteinemia, anorexia nervosa (typically in adolescent females), excessive cold exposure, systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid antibodies.
T69.1XXA – Chilblains, initial encounter
37869000 – Chilblains
- Dermatitis, dyshidrotic
- Raynaud phenomenon
- Erythema multiforme minor
- Hypersensitivity vasculitis (leukocytoclastic vasculitis)
- Polyarteritis nodosa
- First degree burns
- Bruising secondary to trauma
- Child abuse (burns, bruising)
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (see discoid lupus erythematosus)
- Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome