Chronic lymphocytic leukemia - Skin
CLL is the most common form of adult-onset leukemia in Western countries. The majority of CLL cases occur in older white adults (older than 55 years) and the elderly. Male-to-female ratio is approximately 1.7-2:1. In the United States, approximately 16,000 CLL cases are reported annually, which is likely an underestimation from underreporting. Herbicide exposure may contribute to the development of CLL; however, a definitive environmental factor has not been identified. CLL usually has an indolent course in the early phase followed by a more rapidly progressive course prior to death. Prognosis is variable. Aggressive forms of CLL have a high mortality rate within the first 5 years of diagnosis. Death can result from CLL complications, sepsis, transformation to high-grade lymphoma, or treatment toxicity.
Several staging systems are used for CLL. The modified Rai-Sawitsky system is used most often, especially in North America, while the Binet system is used in Europe.
The revised Rai-Sawitsky staging system is divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories:
- Low risk – Lymphocytosis in blood and bone marrow.
- Intermediate risk – Lymphocytosis in blood and bone marrow with one or more of lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, or hepatomegaly.
- High risk – Lymphocytosis with either one or more of anemia (less than 11 g/dL) or thrombocytopenia (less than 100 x 10^9/L).
- Stage A – Hemoglobin greater than or equal to 10 g/dL, platelets greater than or equal to 100 x 10^9/L, and less than three regions with lymphadenopathy.
- Stage B – Hemoglobin greater than or equal to 10 g/dL, platelets greater than or equal to 100 x 10^9/L, and more than three regions with lymphadenopathy.
- Stage C – Hemoglobin less than 10 g/dL and/or platelets less than 100 x 10^9/L.
C91.10 – Chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B-cell type not having achieved remission
51092000 – Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- Acute myelogenous leukemia
- Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
- Hairy cell leukemia
- Leukemia, prolymphocytic – Greater than 65% of the cells are immature prolymphocytes.
- Lymphoma, diffuse large cell
- Lymphoma, follicular
- Lymphoma, lymphoblastic
- Lymphoma, mantle cell
- Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin
- Lymphoma, small lymphocytic – Less than 5,000/µL B-cells with lymphadenopathy, but without cytopenias.
- Myeloproliferative disease
- Myelodysplastic syndrome
- Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis – Less than 5,000/µL B-cells without cytopenia, lymphadenopathy, or other associated CLL or B symptoms; small percentage progresses to CLL each year.