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Cystic hygroma - Skin
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Cystic hygroma - Skin

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Contributors: Craig N. Burkhart MD, Dean Morrell MD, Lowell A. Goldsmith MD, MPH, Nancy Esterly MD
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Synopsis

Cystic hygroma is a benign lymphatic malformation characterized as macrocystic, with collections of large lymphatic cysts lined by endothelium. It may occur anywhere on the body but typically involves the neck (75%) or axilla (20%). Less common sites (5%) are the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, abdominal viscera, groin, bones, and scrotum. There is no sex difference. The frequency is 1 in 6,000 births. Most lesions (65%) are present at birth, otherwise by age 2.

Lesions occur in otherwise healthy infants, but there is an association with Turner, Down, Edwards, and Noonan syndromes. Aside from an associated chromosomal abnormality, airway obstruction is the most critical complication.

Infection (16% risk) may cause more swelling, pain, fever, and erythema. Hemorrhage (13% risk) should be considered with an enlarging painful lesion in a child with evidence of acute blood loss.

Codes

ICD10CM:
D18.1 – Lymphangioma, any site

SNOMEDCT:
399882002 – Cystic hygroma

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Last Updated: 09/04/2013
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Cystic hygroma - Skin
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Cystic hygroma : Axilla, Neck, Present at birth, Tumor, Unilateral
Clinical image of Cystic hygroma
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