Subcutaneous cysticercosis primarily manifests as multiple freely mobile nodules. Its primary significance is as an indicator of possible neurocysticercosis. Cysticerci may also invade skeletal muscle, giving rise to myositis (fever, myalgias, eosinophilia) and sometimes pseudohypertrophy. Intraocular cysticercosis may lead to vision loss.
Neurocysticercosis is the most serious manifestation of cysticercosis and is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. In addition to seizures, the presence of cysticerci in the brain may lead to stroke, meningitis / encephalitis, increased intracranial pressure, focal neurologic deficits, dementia, or death. Neurocysticercosis may also be asymptomatic. After 5-10 years, however, the cysts eventually degenerate, and it is the intense inflammatory response to these degenerating cysts that cause the majority of symptoms. Patients often experience long-term sequelae such as seizures.
Cysticercosis is endemic to Mexico and Latin America, Eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Indonesia, China, and southeastern Asia. The incidence of this important parasitic disease is rising in the United States, especially in California and other states with a large immigrant population. In a nationwide study examining hospitalization frequency for neurocysticercosis in the United States between 2003-2012, Hispanic individuals were at the highest risk, in particular males 20-44 years of age.
B69.9 – Cysticercosis, unspecified
59051007 – Cysticercosis
- Epidermoid cyst
- Ganglion cyst
- Metastatic carcinoma
- Onchocerca nodules
- Lymphadenopathy – benign or malignant