Drug-induced splenomegaly can occur due to a direct hypertrophic effect on splenic cells or due to an effect on other organ systems (ie, hemolysis, portal hypertension) leading to splenic enlargement. Chemotherapeutic drugs (eg, oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, bevacizumab, etc) are often implicated in drug-induced splenomegaly. RhoGAM is also known to cause splenomegaly in some patients.
For a more exhaustive list of medications associated with splenomegaly, see Drug Reaction Data below.
R16.1 – Splenomegaly, not elsewhere classified
16294009 – Splenomegaly
- Hemolytic anemia – such as in hereditary spherocytosis and alpha and beta thalassemia, cardiac valvular disease, or hemolysis as medication side effect
- Trauma – can lead to intracapsular hematoma
- Portal vein hypertension
- Sickle cell disease
- Gaucher disease – abnormal lipid deposition
- Niemann-Pick disease
- Infection – infectious mononucleosis, malaria, typhoid, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and visceral leishmaniasis
- Myeloproliferative disease (eg, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis, chronic myelogenous leukemia)
- Splenic angiosarcoma – vascular neoplasm
- Congestive heart failure
- Splenic vein obstruction