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Gastroesophageal reflux disease in Infant/Neonate
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux disease in Infant/Neonate

Contributors: Michael W. Winter MD, Eric Ingerowski MD, FAAP
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refers to the association of symptoms or complications due to the reflux of gastric contents into the esophageal lumen. This is important to distinguish from gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which is the reflux of food contents into the esophagus and oropharynx. GER is common in newborns, with an estimated prevalence of approximately 50%. It is most common in neonates and incidence decreases with age, often extinguishing by 12 months of age. It is rare for infants to have GER beyond 18 months of life.

It is unclear whether a higher frequency of GER events predisposes infants to GERD.

Patients with chronic cough and impaired mucosal clearance (eg, cystic fibrosis) and esophageal dysmotility (eg, esophageal atresia following repair) are predisposed to GERD.


K21.00 – Gastro-esophageal reflux disease with esophagitis, without bleeding
K21.9 – Gastro-esophageal reflux disease without esophagitis

235595009 – Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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Best Tests

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Drug Reaction Data

Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.

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Last Reviewed:10/01/2018
Last Updated:01/16/2022
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Patient Information for Gastroesophageal reflux disease in Infant/Neonate
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease in Infant/Neonate
Copyright © 2023 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.