- Acute nephritic syndromes – Patients present with nonnephrotic-range proteinuria, hematuria with red blood cell casts, pyuria, hypertension, fluid retention, and a rise in serum creatinine associated with a reduction in glomerular filtration, which can be progressive or rapid in onset. Diseases include membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis (see systemic lupus erythematosus), post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
- Pulmonary-renal syndromes – Patients develop rapidly progressive renal decline with hematuria, proteinuria, and edema and have associated pulmonary hemorrhage, vasculitis, or ANCA-positive vasculitis. Examples include Goodpasture syndrome, granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
- Nephrotic syndromes – Patients present with heavy proteinuria defined as >3 g/24 h, edema, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia, and microscopic hematuria. There may be a decline in glomerular filtration over time leading to progressive renal dysfunction. Examples include minimal-change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, light-chain deposition disease.
- Basement membrane syndromes – Patients present with microscopic hematuria, mild to heavy proteinuria, hypertension, and variable declines in renal function due to either genetically abnormal glomerular basement membranes or autoimmune responses to glomerular basement membrane collagen. Examples include Alport syndrome and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.
- Glomerular-vascular syndromes – Patients present with hematuria and moderate proteinuria, and disease is secondary to underlying vasculitis, thrombotic microangiopathy, antiphospholipid syndrome, or other systemic disease such as sickle cell disease, atherosclerosis, or hypertension. Examples include atherosclerotic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, sickle cell disease.
- Infectious disease-associated syndromes – In the developing world, infectious disease-related glomerulonephritis is the most common cause of glomerular disease. Patients present with varying degrees of glomerular inflammation with a combination of hematuria and proteinuria on urinalysis. Examples include human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy, hepatitis B and C, malaria, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
N00.9 – Acute nephritic syndrome with unspecified morphologic changes
36171008 – Glomerulonephritis