Hydrocele of testis
Typically, a male newborn patient presents with painless scrotal swelling in one or both sides. Usually, the hydrocele will go away on its own within the first year of life without medical intervention. Adult men who present with hydrocele may experience discomfort, a feeling of heaviness or fullness, or swollen or irritated scrotal skin.
Hydrocele will present bilaterally only in a small minority of patients. Size and palpability may vary depending on patient position (lying down, standing up, etc). When located on the right side of the body, it is often associated with hernia.
Congenital hydrocele results from a process during embryogenesis where the processus vaginalis remains patent, allowing fluid from the peritoneum to accumulate in the scrotum. Most hydroceles are present at birth, and approximately 1%-2% of newborns may present with hydrocele. Patients who are born prematurely are at increased risk.
Adult-onset hydrocele may occur due to scrotal inflammation resulting from orchitis or epididymitis, tuberculosis, or tropical infection. Older boys and adult men may also develop a hydrocele as a result of scrotal injury. Risk factors also include sexually transmitted infections. In adults, patients over the age of 40 are most commonly affected. While hydroceles are typically benign and usually do not affect fertility, in rare cases, patients may have an underlying testicular condition that may result in severe complications such as infection, tumor, or inguinal hernia.
Treatment is dependent on the cause of the hydrocele and patient symptoms, and in most cases is unnecessary, as hydroceles tend to go away on their own. If an infant patient has a hydrocele that does not go away after age 1, surgical intervention may be considered.
N43.2 – Other hydrocele
55434001 – Hydrocele