Hydrogen fluoride poisoning
Clinical manifestations may be dermal, respiratory, and/or systemic.
- Dermal contact produces immediate onset of redness, pain, and blistering that progresses to deep chemical burns and skin necrosis.
- Respiratory symptoms may be immediate or delayed up to 35 hours and include sore throat, nasal irritation, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and cough. Severe exposures also produce dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, cyanosis, laryngeal swelling, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and collapsed lung.
- Systemic effects of toxicity may take days to appear and include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and cardiac arrhythmias. Absorption of HF interferes with calcium metabolism, resulting in hypocalcemia with resultant tetany, seizures, and cardiovascular collapse. It may also produce hypomagnesemia and hyperkalemia with resultant paresthesias, weakness, paralysis, and cardiac arrest.
Treatment involves irrigation, decontamination, oxygen therapy, topical calcium gluconate, and/or IV calcium gluconate.
T59.5X4A – Toxic effect of fluorine gas and hydrogen fluoride, undetermined, initial encounter
212857005 – Toxic effect of fluorine gas and hydrogen fluoride