ContentsSynopsisCodesLook ForDiagnostic PearlsDifferential Diagnosis & PitfallsBest TestsManagement PearlsTherapyReferences
Emergency: requires immediate attention
Infantile spasms
Print
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed
Emergency: requires immediate attention

Infantile spasms

Print Images (1)
Contributors: Jamie Adams MD, Richard L. Barbano MD, PhD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Infantile spasms (West syndrome) is an epilepsy syndrome that starts in infancy, characterized by epileptic spasms and associated with hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalogram (EEG) and developmental regression. Onset of disease is typically between 3 and 12 months of age.

The seizures are characterized by sudden, typically bilateral, spasms of the neck, trunk, and/or extremities with associated brief loss of consciousness. Spasms can be flexor, extensor, or mixed. Most seizures last seconds and occur in clusters with up to hundreds of spasms in a day.

Infantile spasms can be associated with many neurologic conditions including tuberous sclerosis, neuronal migration disorders, hypoxic-ischemic injury, cerebral palsy, or Down syndrome. Up to one-third of cases have no obvious underlying abnormality. Prognosis is typically poor (although somewhat better in the cryptogenic group); while spasms usually remit by age 3, most children go on to develop other seizure types, with up to 50% developing Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Developmental delay and cognitive impairment is common.

Codes

ICD10CM:
G40.822 – Epileptic spasms, not intractable, without status epilepticus

SNOMEDCT:
28055006 – West syndrome

Look For

Subscription Required

Diagnostic Pearls

Subscription Required

Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Best Tests

Subscription Required

Management Pearls

Subscription Required

Therapy

Subscription Required

References

Subscription Required

Last Reviewed: 05/22/2017
Last Updated: 06/14/2017
Copyright © 2018 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.
Emergency: requires immediate attention
Infantile spasms
Print 1 Images
Infantile spasms : Seizures, Loss of consciousness
Copyright © 2018 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.