Livedo reticularis in Infant/Neonate
Cutis marmorata (CM) is a transient, benign (physiologic) presentation of LR that may also be seen in pale, gravid females.
Congenital LR, known as cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC), presents with persistent LR that can involve the trunk or extremities. Generally, the mottled discoloration is limited to one extremity but can be more generalized. There may be a sharp demarcation at midline with truncal involvement. CMTC is sporadically inherited (or autosomal dominant) and can be associated with limb, facial, and spine anomalies along with cutaneous atrophy. The vascular changes of the skin may improve during the first few years of life and resolve completely in approximately 20% of children with CMTC.
Many inherited vascular malformation syndromes are associated with CM or LR. LR also is associated with a host of other factors including anticardiolipin antibodies. It is seen with collagen vascular diseases such as Raynaud disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, polyarteritis nodosa, and temporal arteritis. In severe cases, the extremities are cold and ulcers may form.
Infectious associations include syphilis, tuberculosis, streptococcemia, endocarditis, and rickettsial and viral diseases. Medication associations include amantadine, catecholamines, and quinidine; endocrine associations include hypothyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and Cushing disease.
R23.1 – Pallor
238772004 – Livedo reticularis
- Cutis marmorata
- Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC)
- Erythema ab igne is a form of fixed reticulate dyspigmentation in skin with chronic repeated heat exposure.
- Hereditary benign telangiectasia – A familial disorder associated with cutaneous and labial telangiectases.
- Adams-Oliver syndrome – Has CMTC and aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp, sometimes with bony defects.
- Divry-Van Bogaert syndrome – A rare disorder with LR and leptomeningeal angiomatosis during adolescence.
- Osler-Weber-Rendu disease – Includes significant visceral and cutaneous arteriovenous malformations and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.
- Active ulceration or atrophic scars suggest underlying pathological disease.
- Angioma serpiginosum
- Emboli or thrombosis
Last Updated: 07/26/2018