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Mayaro virus infection
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Mayaro virus infection

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Contributors: Neil Mendoza MD, Paritosh Prasad MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Mayaro virus is an alphavirus of the Semliki Forest virus complex. The virus is mosquito-borne, and it is endemic in South America (where several small outbreaks have occurred). Cases of this disease in returning travelers in Europe have also been reported.

Patients present with fever, a nonspecific rash, arthralgias, and eye pain. The rash is typically seen around day 5 of the illness. Other symptoms that may be present include headache, retro-orbital pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and photophobia. Symptoms typically resolve over about 5 days, but arthralgias can persist for weeks to months and up to 1 year after acute illness.

The symptoms of Mayaro virus are similar to those seen following infection with other alphaviruses including chikungunya virus, and it may be impossible to distinguish these infections based solely on the clinical history and physical examination.

Codes

ICD10CM:
A92.8 – Other specified mosquito-borne viral fevers

SNOMEDCT:
9164007 – Mayaro fever

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Diagnostic Pearls

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Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

  • Other alphaviruses including chikungunya virus – Serology or PCR can be checked.
  • Malaria – Malaria antigen and blood smear should be obtained.
  • Dengue fever – Polyarthralgia is less common with Dengue fever. Serology can be checked.
  • Zika virus – Check serology and PCR.
  • Yellow fever – Should be considered in travelers to endemic regions of South America. Patients may have jaundice. Diagnosis is with serology or PCR.
  • Typhoid fever – Patients typically have fever and "rose spots." Diagnosis is typically made by culture of the blood or stool.
  • Measles – The rash typically begins on the face before spreading to the trunk and extremities. Diagnosis is by serology or PCR.

Best Tests

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Management Pearls

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Therapy

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References

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Last Updated: 07/14/2016
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Mayaro virus infection
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Mayaro virus infection : Chills, Fever, Headache, Photophobia, Rash, Forestry worker, Retroorbital pain, Arthralgia, Myalgia, Mosquito exposure
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.