Nevus of Ota - External and Internal Eye
Dermal melanocytoses are caused by an increased number of dermal dendritic melanocytes and can be congenital or acquired. All dermal melanocytoses are more often seen in patients of Asian or African descent, and nevus of Ota, in particular, is more common among females. Nevus of Ota usually occurs in early infancy and early adolescence. It may be present at birth. Unlike the more common congenital dermal melanocytosis, it does not spontaneously regress and may darken or grow in size with puberty. These changes are thought to be secondary to UV radiation and hormonal influences. Malignant transformation is very rare. There is an association with ipsilateral glaucoma in 10% of patients with a nevus of Ota later in life. Rarely, in extensive nevus of Ota, melanocytoma or melanoma has occurred.
Related topic: Choroidal melanoma
D22.39 – Melanocytic nevi of other parts of face
254817005 – Nevus of Ota
- Dyspigmentation from alkaptonuria (congenital ochronosis) or acquired ochronosis (occurring after high concentrations of hydroquinone) may have a similar hue but lack a trigeminal distribution.
- Melasma is characterized by tan or brown pigmented patches distributed bilaterally over the malar cheeks, temples, and forehead.
- Blue nevus / blue nevus of the conjunctiva may have similar blue-grey pigmentation but is a smaller well-demarcated macule or papule.
- Nevus of Ito is located over the supraclavicular, deltoid, or scapular region.
- Tattoo from gunpowder or industrial accidents can be diagnosed by history.
- Melanoma can manifest with disseminated melanosis, but pigmentation will usually be less well demarcated and will present later in life.
- Lentigos or giant café-au-lait macules impart a tan to brown hue.
- Lentigo maligna
- Lentigo maligna melanoma
- Drug-induced pigmentation can either be diffuse or photodistributed; see also amiodarone-induced pigmentation.
- Ecchymoses (see traumatic purpura) will have a history of trauma.
- Arteriovenous malformations can range from blue to red.