Opioid withdrawal syndrome
Opioid drugs are derived from poppy plants, or they may be semi-synthetic or synthetic. Examples are morphine and codeine (natural opiates); heroin, oxycodone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and buprenorphine (semi-synthetic opioids); and meperidine (Demerol), fentanyl, and methadone (synthetic opioids).
Methadone is commonly used to treat patients with opioid addiction in order to reduce withdrawal symptoms and cravings. Buprenorphine and naltrexone are also approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction.
Devices with cranial nerve stimulation may help reduce symptoms of acute opioid withdrawal.
Related topics: Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, Opioid Use Disorder, Opioid Toxicity
F11.93 – Opioid use, unspecified with withdrawal
87132004 – Opioid withdrawal
- Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
- Cholinergic toxicity
- Anticholinergic toxicity
- Sympathomimetic toxicity
- Drug side effects (eg, cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA, salicylates)
- Psychiatric disorder
- Viral upper respiratory infection
- Inflammatory bowel disease (eg, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis)
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- Allergic rhinitis
- Vasomotor rhinitis
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- Adrenal crisis
- Hyperthyroidism / thyrotoxicosis
- Electrolyte disturbance (eg, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia)