In wrist OA, primary OA is caused by avascular necrosis or congenital deformities and commonly involves the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joint. Secondary OA is generally brought about by trauma, particularly scapholunate ligament injury, distal radius fracture, and scaphoid fracture. The majority of cases of wrist arthritis are a result of scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC).
Wrist OA from 3 types of insult:
- Ligament injuries –
- Scapholunate ligament injury leading to SLAC wrist
- Lunotriquetral injuries
- Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries and degeneration
- Fractures –
- Chondral lesions following carpal bone fractures
- Distal radius fracture, distal ulna fracture
- Scaphoid fractures with nonunion leading to scaphoid nonunion collapse (SNAC) wrist
- Vascular supply –
Prevalence: The prevalence of wrist OA varies within the literature; however, one study found that 1.7% of men and 1.0% of women have wrist OA confirmed radiographically.
- Modifiable: high body mass index (BMI), occupation
- Nonmodifiable: trauma, advanced age, genetics, joint shape