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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Respiratory failure
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Potentially life-threatening emergency

Respiratory failure

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Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Condition of impaired gas exchange in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient oxygenated blood cells to the organs (hypoxemia) or remove carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) or a combination of both. Can be caused by diseases of the lung that impair intake of air such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease, airway obstructions, neuromuscular impairment that prevents the pumping of blood to and from the lungs, contributing factors such as history of smoking, abuse of sedatives and surgical anesthesia, and systemic disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, poliomyelitis, and cervical spine trauma.

Type I respiratory failure is characterized by hypoxemia-damaged lung tissue. Type II respiratory failure, or ventilation failure, is characterized by hypercapnia, high levels of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood, or respiratory acidosis, which can be fatal if untreated. Type III respiratory failure involves perioperative atelectasis. Type IV occurs following intubation and recovery from hypoperfused state.

May be classified as an acute, severe, sudden-onset medical emergency, or as chronic, which develops over a period of time and necessitates long-term treatment, such as in association with COPD or chronic drug- or alcohol-induced respiratory suppression. Common signs and symptoms include dyspnea, tachypnea, cyanosis, lung crackles, and altered mental status. Depending on root cause of respiratory failure, treatments include treating the causative disease, oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and tracheotomy.

Codes

ICD10CM:
J96.90 – Respiratory failure, unspecified, unspecified whether with hypoxia or hypercapnia

SNOMEDCT:
409622000 – Respiratory failure

Best Tests

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Drug Reaction Data

Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.

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References

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Last Updated: 05/11/2016
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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Respiratory failure
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Respiratory failure (Type 1 (hypoxic)) : Altered mental state, Cyanosis, Tachycardia, Dyspnea, Crackles, Hypoxia
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