Scar - Skin in Child
The various types of scars that exist can be divided into the below categories.
Scars Following Inflammatory Processes and Infectious Disease
Many inflammatory processes can cause scar formation, and diseases that frequently cause scars are as follows:
Particular forms of inflammatory acne may result in unsightly permanent scar formation, which is problematic for both the patient and the doctor treating the condition.
Acne scars are varied in their formation and may be superficial macules, resemble "ice pick"-like pits in the skin, be dermal troughs, be fistulous tracts, or result in subcutaneous atrophy.
The prevalence of scarring following varicella (chickenpox) infection was found to be around 18% in one study. The scars were mostly located on the face, followed by the chest, abdomen, and back.
The lesions may be hyperpigmented or hypopigmented, depressed or hypertrophic.
Factitial (self-induced) scars
Many pruritic skin disorders are associated with chronic excoriation by the patient. Patients carrying the diagnoses of neurodermatitis, neurotic excoriations, and prurigo nodularis frequently have scars from severe self-"picking" and "gouging" of the skin.
Scars Following External Trauma and Injury to the Skin
This category includes the following:
- Hypertrophic scars
- Atrophic scars
Hypertrophic scars are raised, nodular, red-colored growths that continue to increase in size for up to a year, a longer period of time than normal scars but still less than that of keloids. Hypertrophic scars remain confined to the edges of the original wound even though they may appear to have overgrown it.
Keloids initially produce scar tissue that is less proliferative compared to hypertrophic scar tissue, but since they continue to grow beyond the time frame of hypertrophic scars, they end up producing more scar tissue. Keloids occur more frequently in people with darker skin pigmentation, and African Americans have a fivefold increased tendency to develop keloids.
Commonly Seen Injury-Related Scars
Knee surgery scars
Incision scars associated with total knee arthroplasty can be of 2 types: medial parapatellar and midline. Arthroscopic incisions can also result in hypertrophic scars.
Erythema and hypertrophic scarring may follow a punch biopsy.
Striae (stretch marks) are a form of scarring and are atrophic linear plaques that develop due to stretching of the skin as seen in pregnancy and in childhood during periods of accelerated growth.
Burns usually leave behind scars that are hypertrophic.
Scars that Change their Nature over the Passage of Time
Burn scars have been reported as developing malignant changes in the scar over the course of time. Mostly squamous cell carcinomas develop, although basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have also been reported. Patients with burn scars should be monitored over time for the possibility of a squamous cell carcinoma.
L91.0 – Hypertrophic scar
275322007 – Scar