Approximately 10% percent of all pregnancies end in miscarriage, and about 80% of losses occur in the first trimester. Half of these losses will be related to fetal chromosomal abnormalities. A large number of losses will have an unexplained etiology.
Risk factors include increasing maternal age, history of prior uterine surgery, endocrine disease, history of prior pregnancy loss, short interval between pregnancies, radiation exposure, infections, genetic issues, autoimmune disease, and uterine abnormalities.
Patients may present with a variety of symptoms including pain / lower abdominal cramping, vaginal bleeding, and/or passage of blood clots or tissue.
Unfortunately, there are no interventions that truly protect against early loss.
003.9 – Complete or unspecified spontaneous abortion without complication
17369002 – Miscarriage
- Threatened abortion – Vaginal bleeding but still viable fetus with cardiac activity seen on ultrasound.
- Incomplete abortion – Retained products of conception remain after the initial bleeding / cramping have ceased.
- Missed abortion – Usually diagnosed on ultrasound when there have been no outward symptoms of pregnancy loss; pregnancy tissue still in uterus but not progressing as expected.
- Bleeding in early pregnancy – Will have viable pregnancy on ultrasound.
- Ectopic pregnancy – Will not have the usual findings seen on ultrasound in early pregnancy.
Last Updated: 07/03/2018