Signs and symptoms include a neck lump or swelling, neck pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, dyspnea and/or persistent cough. Erythroderma may rarely be a cutaneous manifestation of malignancy.
Thyroid cancer is classified based on histologic features:
- Papillary thyroid cancer – Most common type of thyroid cancer, often with diagnosis at an early stage with good overall prognosis. Characteristic histologic findings include psammoma bodies, cleaved nuclei with an "Orphan Annie" appearance, and the formation of papillary structures. Of note, it is now suggested that the encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, which has a very low risk of adverse outcome, be reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features.
- Follicular thyroid cancer – Most common type of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient regions of the world. Often difficult to diagnose with fine needle aspiration due to lack of distinguishing features. Prognosis is poor if diagnosis is made at advanced stage of disease.
- Anaplastic thyroid cancer – Poorly differentiated and aggressive form of thyroid cancer with most patients dead within 6 months of diagnosis.
- Medullary thyroid cancer – This can either be sporadic or familial as part of MEN 2A, MEN 2B, or medullary thyroid cancer without other features of MEN. Surgical resection is the preferred method of treatment with elevated calcitonin levels post-surgery indicating residual disease.
C73 – Malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland
363478007 – Malignant tumor of thyroid gland