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Tinea capitis - Hair and Scalp
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Tinea capitis - Hair and Scalp

See also in: Skin
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Contributors: Mary Gail Mercurio MD, Jeffrey D. Bernhard MD, Lowell A. Goldsmith MD, MPH
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Tinea capitis is also known as scalp ringworm. It is an infection caused by dermatophyte species of fungi, most often those of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. Some of the most common causative species in the United States are Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum audouinii, and Microsporum canis. The condition manifests as numerous scaly lesions and patches of broken hair on the scalp. Lesions may suppurate and evolve into kerions. Two patterns of infections are recognized: ectothrix and endothrix. An ectothrix infection involves both the inside and outside of the hair shaft, while an endothrix infection involves only the inside. Infections of either type may be anthropophilic (humans are the primary host) or zoophilic (animal host). Tinea capitis is most commonly encountered in children and is more frequent in black children, but it is also seen in adults. In older adults or those from abroad, unusual dermatophytes, some of which cause scarring alopecia, may be present. Systemic antifungal agents are required for treatment.

Majocchi-like granulomas, deep ulcerated fungal infections, severe tinea capitis and corporis, and fungal nail involvement are characteristic of an inherited deficiency of CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9), an inflammatory cascade-associated protein. The disorder is autosomal recessive and is most common in North Africa countries including Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. The infections usually begin in childhood and are caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton violaceum. Lymphadenopathy, high IgE antibody levels, and eosinophilia are common, and the disorder can be fatal.

Codes

ICD10CM:
B35.0 – Tinea barbae and tinea capitis

SNOMEDCT:
5441008 – Tinea capitis

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Last Updated: 12/04/2013
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Tinea capitis - Hair and Scalp
See also in: Skin
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Tinea capitis : Erythema, Fine scaly plaque, Scalp, Patchy non-scarring alopecia, Pruritus, Round areas of non-scarring alopecia, Short broken hairs
Clinical image of Tinea capitis
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