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Zika virus infection in Child
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Zika virus infection in Child

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Contributors: Vivian Wong MD, PhD, Lisa Altieri MD, James H. Willig MD, MSPH
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Synopsis

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, closely related to the dengue virus. Human infection is primarily acquired via bites from infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in endemic areas: the tropical regions of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the South Pacific islands and more recently Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2015, Zika virus outbreak was first reported in Brazil, Colombia, and Suriname. Travel-related cases have since been reported in the United States; sexually transmitted cases are suspected to have occurred, and Zika virus has been found in the semen of infected men. A small number of cases of likely local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission have been reported in Miami, FL, and Brownsville, TX. There have been rare cases of person-to-person nonsexual transmission. There is no apparent sex or age predilection for Zika virus infection.

After being bitten by an infected mosquito, it takes approximately 3-12 days for symptoms to appear. The diagnostic criteria of Zika virus disease include a widespread morbilliform rash with at least one of the following manifestations: arthralgia, arthritis, and/or conjunctivitis. Other symptoms may include fever, myalgias, headache, sore throat, cough, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Symptoms are typically mild, short-lasting (2-7 days), self-limited, and without sequelae. However, Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological disorders have been reported in patients after exposure to Zika virus. In addition, viral infection in pregnant women has been associated with microcephaly in infants (see congenital Zika virus infection). There are also cases of fetal loss in women who were infected with Zika virus. It is thought that these outcomes are the result of congenital infection with Zika virus.

Because the clinical presentation overlaps with those of other arboviruses, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, cases may be mistaken for another arboviral infection.

Zika virus has the potential to cause outbreaks, but cases in travelers returning to nonendemic areas are infrequently reported. While Zika virus is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito, there have been reports of it being spread human to human via sexual transmission as well as via blood transfusion.

CDC Level-2 Travel Alert (Practice Enhanced Precautions): The CDC has issued a travel alert for Mexico, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico:
  • Pregnant women in any trimester should consider postponing travel to the areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing. Travel to any area of Mexico below 6500 feet is strongly discouraged. Those who must travel to one of these areas should talk to their doctor or other health care provider first and strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites during the trip.
  • Women trying to become pregnant should consult with their health care provider before traveling and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during the trip.
Check the CDC website for the latest information and for diagnostic testing information.

Codes

ICD10CM:
A92.8 – Other specified mosquito-borne viral fevers

SNOMEDCT:
3928002 – Zika virus disease

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Last Updated: 10/04/2018
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Zika virus infection in Child
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Zika virus infection : Fever, Erythema, Face, Widespread, Arthralgia, Conjunctival injection, Smooth papules, Arms, Legs
Clinical image of Zika virus infection
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