Project IMPACT Resources

Reducing healthcare bias in skin of color through education, information, and shared resources.

 

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Key Research

Click on each heading to view important research in that subject area.

Healthcare Disparities in People of Color

Ha MV, Wong C. Racial representation in clinical trials for dermatologic new molecular entities.Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021 Aug 4. doi: 10.1111/ced.14871. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34346107.

Junejo MH, Sheikh UA. Human papillomavirus: inequalities in disease prevention and the impact on racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minorities. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 5. doi: 10.1111/pde.14740. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34351009.

Kuo A, Silverberg N, Fernandez Faith E, Morgan R, Todd P. A systematic scoping review of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic health disparities in pediatric dermatology. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.1111/pde.14755. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34409633.

Marchetti MA, Adamson AS, Halpern AC. Melanoma and racial health disparities in Black individuals: facts, fallacies, and fixes. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.2215. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34287652.

Volkmann ER, Steen V, Li N, Roth MD, Clements PJ, Furst DE, Assassi S, Khanna D, Kim GJ, Goldin J, Elashoff RM, Tashkin DP. Racial disparities in systemic sclerosis: short- and long-term outcomes among African American participants of SLS I and II. ACR Open Rheumatol. 2021 Jan;3(1):8-16. doi: 10.1002/acr2.11206. Epub 2020 Dec 5. PMID: 33277978; PMCID: PMC7811695.

Perlman KL, Klein EJ, Park JH. Racial disparities in dermatology training: the impact on black patients. Cutis. 2020 Dec;106(6):300-301. doi: 10.12788/cutis.0135. PMID: 33471883.

Bakhtiar M, Elbuluk N, Lipoff JB. The digital divide: How COVID-19’s telemedicine expansion could exacerbate disparities. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Nov;83(5):e345-e346. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.07.043. Epub 2020 Jul 16. PMID: 32682890; PMCID: PMC7365110.

Wang LL, Adelekun A, Taylor SC, Lipoff JB. Fee-for-service and structural forces may drive racial disparities in US dermatology. Br J Dermatol. 2020 Oct;183(4):750-751. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19217. Epub 2020 Jul 5. PMID: 32406519.

2019 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; December 2020. AHRQ Pub. No. 20(21)-0045-EF.

Price KN, Hsiao JL, Shi VY. Race and ethnicity gaps in global hidradenitis suppurativa clinical trials. Dermatology. 2021;237(1):97-102. doi: 10.1159/000504911. Epub 2019 Dec 20. PMID: 31865334.

American Cancer Society. (2019) Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans 2019-2021. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

Wan J, Margolis DJ, Mitra N, Hoffstad OJ, Takeshita J. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Atopic Dermatitis-Related School Absences Among US Children. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 May 22:e190597. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.0597. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 31116350; PMCID: PMC6537763.

Jothishankar B, Stein SL. Impact of skin color and ethnicity. Clin Dermatol. 2019 Sep-Oct;37(5):418-429. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.009. Epub 2019 Jul 17. PMID: 31896399.

Takeshita J, Eriksen WT, Raziano VT, Bocage C, Hur L, Shah RV, Gelfand JM, Barg FK. Racial differences in perceptions of psoriasis therapies: Implications for racial disparities in psoriasis treatment. J Invest Dermatol. 2019 Aug;139(8):1672-1679.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2018.12.032. Epub 2019 Feb 6. PMID: 30738054; PMCID: PMC6650313.

Schoenberg E, Wang JV, Duffy R, Keller M. Uncovering Unconscious Bias and Health Disparities in the Practice of Dermatology. Skinmed. 2019 Nov 1;17(6):367-368. PMID: 31904324.

Artiga S, Orgera K, Damico A. (2019). Changes in health coverage by race and ethnicity since implementation of the ACA, 2013-2017. San Francisco, CA: Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation.

American Cancer Society. (2018) Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2018-2020. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

Park CK, Alhusayen R. Representation and treatment allocation of racial groups in dermatologic therapy trials: a 2-year review of the literature. Dermatol Online J. 2018 Feb 15;24(2):13030/qt62d6v7c5. PMID: 29630148.

Rogers AT, Semenov YR, Kwatra SG, Okoye GA. Racial disparities in the management of acne: evidence from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2005-2014. J Dermatolog Treat. 2018 May;29(3):287-289. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2017.1371836. Epub 2017 Sep 11. PMID: 28831837.

Kaufman BP, Guttman-Yassky E, Alexis AF. Atopic dermatitis in diverse racial and ethnic groups: variations in epidemiology, genetics, clinical presentation and treatment. Exp Dermatol. 2018 Apr;27(4):340-357. doi: 10.1111/exd.13514. PMID: 29457272.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Baciu A, Negussie Y, Geller A, Weinstein JN, editors. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2017 Jan 11. PMID: 28418632.

National Center for Health Statistics (US). Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2016 May. Report No.: 2016-1232. PMID: 27308685

Jackson C, Maibach H. Ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in dermatology. J Dermatolog Treat. 2016;27(3):290-1. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2015.1101409. Epub 2015 Nov 2. PMID: 26418077.

Ray KN, Chari AV, Engberg J, Bertolet M, Mehrotra A. Disparities in Time Spent Seeking Medical Care in the United States. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Dec;175(12):1983-6. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.4468. PMID: 26437386; PMCID: PMC5055855.

Monk EP Jr. The Cost of Color: Skin Color, Discrimination, and Health among African-Americans. AJS. 2015 Sep;121(2):396-444. doi: 10.1086/682162. PMID: 26594713.

Oh SS, Galanter J, Thakur N, Pino-Yanes M, Barcelo NE, White MJ, de Bruin DM, Greenblatt RM, Bibbins-Domingo K, Wu AH, Borrell LN, Gunter C, Powe NR, Burchard EG. Diversity in Clinical and Biomedical Research: A Promise Yet to Be Fulfilled. PLoS Med. 2015 Dec 15;12(12):e1001918. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001918. PMID: 26671224; PMCID: PMC4679830.

Chen MS Jr, Lara PN, Dang JH, Paterniti DA, Kelly K. Twenty years post-NIH Revitalization Act: enhancing minority participation in clinical trials (EMPaCT): laying the groundwork for improving minority clinical trial accrual: renewing the case for enhancing minority participation in cancer clinical trials. Cancer. 2014 Apr 1;120 Suppl 7(0 7):1091-6. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28575. PMID: 24643646; PMCID: PMC3980490.

Buster KJ, Stevens EI, Elmets CA. Dermatologic health disparities. Dermatol Clin. 2012 Jan;30(1):53-9, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2011.08.002. PMID: 22117867; PMCID: PMC3742002.

Gaskin DJ, Dinwiddie GY, Chan KS, McCleary RR. Residential segregation and the availability of primary care physicians. Health Serv Res. 2012 Dec;47(6):2353-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2012.01417.x. Epub 2012 Apr 23. PMID: 22524264; PMCID: PMC3416972.

Sauaia A, Dellavalle RP. Health care inequities: an introduction for dermatology providers. Dermatol Clin. 2009 Apr;27(2):103-7, v. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2008.12.001. PMID: 19254652; PMCID: PMC2677554.

Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2009). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

Wong MD, Ettner SL, Boscardin WJ, Shapiro MF. The contribution of cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and survival to racial differences in years of life expectancy. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Apr;24(4):475-81. doi: 10.1007/s11606-009-0912-1. Epub 2009 Feb 3. PMID: 19189193; PMCID: PMC2659154.

Washington DL, Bowles J, Saha S, Horowitz CR, Moody-Ayers S, Brown AF, Stone VE, Cooper LA; Writing group for the Society of General Internal Medicine, Disparities in Health Task Force. Transforming clinical practice to eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in healthcare. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 May;23(5):685-91. doi: 10.1007/s11606-007-0481-0. Epub 2008 Jan 15. PMID: 18196352; PMCID: PMC2324135.

Chen FM, Fryer GE Jr, Phillips RL Jr, Wilson E, Pathman DE. Patients’ beliefs about racism, preferences for physician race, and satisfaction with care. Ann Fam Med. 2005 Mar-Apr;3(2):138-43. doi: 10.1370/afm.282. PMID: 15798040; PMCID: PMC1466852.

Betancourt JR, Maina AW. The Institute of Medicine report “Unequal Treatment”: implications for academic health centers. Mt Sinai J Med. 2004 Oct;71(5):314-21. PMID: 15543432.

Ghafoor A, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, Cardinez C, Murray T, Samuels A, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics for African Americans. CA Cancer J Clin. 2002 Nov-Dec;52(6):326-41. doi: 10.3322/canjclin.52.6.326. PMID: 12469762.

Skin Cancer in People of Color

Yan BY, Barilla S, Strunk A, Garg A. Survival differences in acral lentiginous melanoma according to socioeconomic status and race. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Aug 4:S0190-9622(21)02210-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.049. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34363907.

Hadeler E, Beer J, Uppal S, Nouri K. Identifying areas for improvement in remote skin cancer management: surveillance, diagnostics, and skin of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):792-793. doi: 10.36849/JDD.5731. PMID: 34231991.

Nickles MA, Kulkarni V, Garg SP, Patel MM, Kirchner A, Prabhu AV. Racial diversity in melanoma research from 2015 to 2020: a cross-sectional study. Int J Dermatol. 2021 Jul 2. doi: 10.1111/ijd.15763. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34212372.

Sierro TJ, Blumenthal LY, Hekmatjah J, Chat VS, Kassardjian AA, Read C, Armstrong AW. Differences in healthcare resource utilization and costs for keratinocyte carcinoma among racioethnic groups: a population-based study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 8:S0190-9622(21)02076-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.005. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34246700.

Lopes FCPS, Sleiman MG, Sebastian K, Bogucka R, Jacobs EA, Adamson AS. UV exposure and the risk of cutaneous melanoma in skin of color: A systematic review. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Feb 1;157(2):213-219. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2020.4616. PMID: 33325988.

Cortez JL, Vasquez J, Wei ML. The impact of demographics, socioeconomics, and healthcare access on melanoma outcomes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Aug 9:S0190-9622(20)32405-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.07.125. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32783908.

Sanchez DP, Maymone MBC, McLean EO, Kennedy KF, Sahni D, Secemsky EA, Vashi NA. Racial and ethnic disparities in melanoma awareness: A cross-sectional survey. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Oct;83(4):1098-1103. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.04.137. Epub 2020 May 5. PMID: 32380221.

Nelson B. How dermatology is failing melanoma patients with skin of color: Unanswered questions on risk and eye-opening disparities in outcomes are weighing heavily on melanoma patients with darker skin. In this article, part 1 of a 2-part series, we explore the deadly consequences of racism and inequality in cancer care. Cancer Cytopathol. 2020 Jan;128(1):7-8. doi: 10.1002/cncy.22229. PMID: 31905269.

Tripathi R, Archibald LK, Mazmudar RS, Conic RRZ, Rothermel LD, Scott JF, Bordeaux JS. Racial differences in time to treatment for melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Sep;83(3):854-859. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.094. Epub 2020 Apr 8. PMID: 32277971; PMCID: PMC7141633.

Culp MB, Lunsford NB. Melanoma among non-Hispanic Black Americans. Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Jun 20;16:E79. doi: 10.5888/pcd16.180640. PMID: 31228233; PMCID: PMC6638592.

Hogue L, Harvey VM. Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Cutaneous Melanoma in Skin of Color Patients. Dermatol Clin. 2019 Oct;37(4):519-526. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2019.05.009. PMID: 31466591.

Perez MI. Skin Cancer in Hispanics in the United States. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Mar 1;18(3):s117-120. PMID: 30909356.

Adamson AS, Zhou L, Baggett CD, Thomas NE, Meyer AM. Association of Delays in Surgery for Melanoma With Insurance Type. JAMA Dermatol. 2017 Nov 1;153(11):1106-1113. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.3338. PMID: 28979974; PMCID: PMC5710439.

Mahendraraj K, Sidhu K, Lau CSM, McRoy GJ, Chamberlain RS, Smith FO. Malignant Melanoma in African-Americans: A Population-Based Clinical Outcomes Study Involving 1106 African-American Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) Database (1988-2011). Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Apr;96(15):e6258. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000006258. PMID: 28403068; PMCID: PMC5403065.

Dawes SM, Tsai S, Gittleman H, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Bordeaux JS. Racial disparities in melanoma survival. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Nov;75(5):983-991. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.06.006. Epub 2016 Jul 28. PMID: 27476974.

Kailas A, Solomon JA, Mostow EN, Rigel DS, Kittles R, Taylor SC. Gaps in the understanding and treatment of skin cancer in people of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 May;74(5):1020-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2015.11.028. PMID: 27085237.

Wang Y, Zhao Y, Ma S. Racial differences in six major subtypes of melanoma: descriptive epidemiology. BMC Cancer. 2016 Aug 30;16(1):691. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2747-6. PMID: 27576582; PMCID: PMC5004333.

Bradford PT. Skin cancer in skin of color. Dermatol Nurs. 2009 Jul-Aug;21(4):170-7, 206; quiz 178. PMID: 19691228; PMCID: PMC2757062.

Rouhani P, Hu S, Kirsner RS. Melanoma in Hispanic and black Americans. Cancer Control. 2008 Jul;15(3):248-53. doi: 10.1177/107327480801500308. PMID: 18596677.

Cormier JN, Xing Y, Ding M, Lee JE, Mansfield PF, Gershenwald JE, Ross MI, Du XL. Ethnic differences among patients with cutaneous melanoma. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 25;166(17):1907-14. doi: 10.1001/archinte.166.17.1907. PMID: 17000949.

Gloster HM Jr, Neal K. Skin cancer in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Nov;55(5):741-60; quiz 761-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2005.08.063. PMID: 17052479.

Hu S, Soza-Vento RM, Parker DF, Kirsner RS. Comparison of stage at diagnosis of melanoma among Hispanic, black, and white patients in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Jun;142(6):704-8. doi: 10.1001/archderm.142.6.704. PMID: 16785372.

Representation in Education & Resources

Burgin S, Dlova NC, Ingram JR, Parish LC, Goldsmith LA. The essential role of dermatology publications in enhancing professional diversity, equity and inclusion. Br J Dermatol. 2021;185(3):473-474. doi:10.1111/bjd.20473

Silverberg NB, Jacob S, Heath C, Gonzalez M, Yu J, Luu M, Benjamin L, Kenner-Bell B, Oboite M, Castelo-Soccio L, Stein SL. Training in pediatric skin of color: suggested curricular guidelines of the pediatric dermatology research alliance special interest group in pediatric skin of color. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 21. doi: 10.1111/pde.14754. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34418155.

Hereford B, Kim Y, Zaenglein AL, Hollins LC. Photographic representation of skin tones in three dermatology journals. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 21. doi: 10.1111/pde.14766. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34418149.

Zhou AG, Hafler J, Tomayko MM. Modifying a comprehensive preclinical dermatology curriculum to better teach dermatology in skin of all colors: Response to “Improving cultural competency and practicing cultural humility in dermatologic training: Skin of color education and board certifi J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Aug 8:S0190-9622(21)02285-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.898. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34375668.

Barve A, Shah M, Sheth P. Skin of color images in pediatric dermatology textbooks. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 16. doi: 10.1111/pde.14760. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34402099.

Nusbaum KB, Adame S, Shipp D, Trinidad JC. Skin of color in dermatology: analysis of representation in dermatologic journals. Int J Dermatol. 2021 Aug 19. doi: 10.1111/ijd.15828. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34411282.

Costello CM, Harvey JA, Besch-Stokes JG, Bhullar P, Lim ES, Kunze KL, Tollefson MM, Tolaymat LM, Ochoa SA. The role of race and ethnicity in the dermatology applicant match process. J Natl Med Assoc. 2021 Aug 2:S0027-9684(21)00126-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2021.07.005. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34353623.

Ha MV, Mazmudar RS, Carroll BT. Internet searches for Black dermatologists during the social justice movement of 2020. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 19:S0190-9622(21)02147-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.019. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34293389.

Guo LN, Lee MS, Kassamali B, Mita C, Nambudiri VE. Bias in, bias out: underreporting and underrepresentation of diverse skin types in machine learning research for skin cancer detection – a scoping review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 10:S0190-9622(21)02086-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.884. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34252465.

Mhlaba JM, Pontes DS, Patterson SS, Kundu RV. Evaluation of a skin of color curriculum for dermatology residents. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):786-789. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6193. PMID: 34232004.

Guda VA, Paek SY. Skin of color representation in commonly utilized medical student dermatology resources. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):799. doi: 10.36849/JDD.5726. PMID: 34231988.

Mamo A, Szeto MD, Rietcheck H, Yu S, Burrows K, Olayinka JT, Anand P, Dellavalle RP, Dunnick CA. Evaluating medical student assessment of common dermatologic conditions across Fitzpatrick phototypes and skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1:S0190-9622(21)02015-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.868. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34217806.

Ferguson JE, Vetos D, Ho BV, Aziz M, Lee WM, Mohyuddin GR, Prouty M. Trends in diversity of participants in dermatology clinical trials over time: a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jun 6:S0190-9622(21)01090-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.05.052. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34090958.

Yu Z, Jia JL, Veerabagu SA, Burkemper NM, Friedman AJ, Rosmarin D, Huang JT, Murina AT, Nord KM. Supporting underrepresented in medicine (UIM) and non-UIM trainees applying into dermatology: a qualitative analysis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):795-797. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6043. PMID: 34231995.

Bellicoso E, Quick SO, Ayoo KO, Beach RA, Joseph M, Dahlke E. Diversity in dermatology? An assessment of undergraduate medical education. J Cutan Med Surg. 2021 Apr 13:12034754211007430. doi: 10.1177/12034754211007430. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33849302.

Amuzie AU, Jia JL, Taylor SC, Lester JC. Skin of color article representation in dermatology literature 2009-2019: Higher citation counts and opportunities for inclusion. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Mar 23:S0190-9622(21)00617-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.063. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33771597.

Kurtti A, Austin E, Jagdeo J. Representation of skin color in dermatology-related Google image searches. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Mar 17:S0190-9622(21)00582-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.036. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33744357.

Kaundinya T, Kundu RV. Improving cultural competency and practicing cultural humility in dermatologic training: Skin of color education and board certification. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Mar 23:S0190-9622(21)00614-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.060. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33771598.

Perlman KL, Williams NM, Egbeto IA, Gao DX, Siddiquee N, Park JH. Skin of color lacks representation in medical student resources: A cross-sectional study. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Jan 8;7(2):195-196. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2020.12.018. PMID: 33937492; PMCID: PMC8072497.

Wu AG, Lipner SR. National trends in gender and ethnicity in dermatology training: 2006 to 2018. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jan 28:S0190-9622(21)00236-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.01.077. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33515628.

Chang MJ, Lipner SR. Analysis of skin color on the American Academy of Dermatology public education website. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020 Dec 1;19(12):1236-1237. doi: 10.36849/JDD.2020.5545. PMID: 33346528.

Reilley-Luther J, Cline A, Zimmerly A, Azinge S, Moy J. Representation of Fitzpatrick skin type in dermatology textbooks compared with national percentiles. Dermatol Online J. 2020 Dec 15;26(12):13030/qt91h8k9zc. PMID: 33423414.

Wells TM, Rundle CW, Szeto MD, Presley C, Dellavalle RP. An analysis of skin of color dermatology related content on Instagram. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020 Jul 1;19(7):746-754. doi: 10.36849/JDD.2020.5142. PMID: 32722911.

Cline A, Winter RP, Kourosh S, Taylor SC, Stout M, Callender V, McMichael AJ. Multiethnic training in residency: A survey of dermatology residents. Cutis. 2020 Jun;105(6):310-313. PMID: 32716988.

Adelekun A, Onyekaba G, Lipoff JB. Skin color in dermatology textbooks: An updated evaluation and analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jan;84(1):194-196. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.04.084. Epub 2020 Apr 23. PMID: 32335181.

Alvarado SM, Feng H. Representation of dark skin images of common dermatologic conditions in educational resources: a cross-sectional analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Jun 18:S0190-9622(20)31138-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.06.041. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32565205.

Lester JC, Jia JL, Zhang L, Okoye GA, Linos E. Absence of images of skin of colour in publications of COVID-19 skin manifestations. Br J Dermatol. 2020 Sep;183(3):593-595. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19258. Epub 2020 Jul 16. PMID: 32471009; PMCID: PMC7301030.

Xierali IM, Nivet MA, Pandya AG. US dermatology department faculty diversity trends by sex and underrepresented-in-medicine status, 1970 to 2018. JAMA Dermatol. 2020 Mar 1;156(3):280-287. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.4297. PMID: 31913403; PMCID: PMC6990830.

Lester JC, Taylor SC, Chren MM. Under-representation of skin of colour in dermatology images: not just an educational issue. Br J Dermatol. 2019 Jun;180(6):1521-1522. doi: 10.1111/bjd.17608. PMID: 31157429.

Soliman YS, Rzepecki AK, Guzman AK, Williams RF, Cohen SR, Ciocon D, Halverstam C. Understanding Perceived Barriers of Minority Medical Students Pursuing a Career in Dermatology. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 Feb 1;155(2):252-254. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.4813. PMID: 30624570; PMCID: PMC6439537.

Louie P, Wilkes R. Representations of race and skin tone in medical textbook imagery. Soc Sci Med. 2018 Apr;202:38-42. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.02.023. Epub 2018 Feb 23. PMID: 29501717.

Van Voorhees AS, Enos CW. Diversity in Dermatology Residency Programs. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2017 Oct;18(2):S46-S49. doi: 10.1016/j.jisp.2017.07.001. PMID: 28941493.

Ebede T, Papier A. Disparities in dermatology educational resources. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Oct;55(4):687-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2005.10.068. PMID: 17010750.

Skin of Color Dermatology

Ho T, Taylor MT, Marathe KS, Lucky AW, Barbieri JS. Most common pediatric skin conditions managed in outpatient dermatology clinics in the United States stratified by race and ethnicity. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 2. doi: 10.1111/pde.14693. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34339074.

Jones NL, Heath CR. Hair at the intersection of dermatology and anthropology: a conversation on race and relationships. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 3. doi: 10.1111/pde.14721. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34342039.

Khosla NN, Grullon K, Rosenblatt AE. Prevention of racialized medicine in pediatric dermatology: a call to re-examine skin tone typing. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 6. doi: 10.1111/pde.14739. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34355415.

O’Connor C, Gallagher C, Bourke J, Murphy M. Confidence of Irish dermatologists in caring for patients with skin of colour. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021 Aug 16. doi: 10.1111/ced.14897. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34398995.

Davies OMT, Benjamin L, Gupta D, Huang JT, Rehmus W, Siegel DH, Siegel MP. Diversity in pediatric dermatology: a report from the Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance and a call to action. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.1111/pde.14756. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34409651.

Bellet JS. Nail discoloration in pediatric skin of color patients. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Jul 15. doi: 10.1111/pde.14659. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34263476.

Finlay AY, Griffiths TW, Belmo S, Chowdhury MMU. Why we should abandon the misused descriptor “erythema”. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Jul 28. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20660. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34319584.

Alexis AF, Woolery-Lloyd H, Williams K, Andriessen A, Callender VD, Kang S, Rodriquez D, Tan J. Racial/ethnic variations in acne: implications for treatment and skin care recommendations for acne patients with skin of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):716-725. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6169. PMID: 34232006.

Tamazian S, Oboite M, Treat JR. Patch testing in skin of color: A brief report. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Mar 20. doi: 10.1111/pde.14578. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33742499.

Orenstein LAV, Nelson MM, Wolner Z, Laugesen MJ, Wang Z, Patzer RE, Swerlick RA. Differences in outpatient dermatology encounter work relative value units and net payments by patient race, sex, and age. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Feb 17:e205823. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2020.5823. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33595596; PMCID: PMC7890528.

Plante JG, Aleisa AI, Thiers BH. Pityriasis rubra pilaris in skin of color. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Jan 19;7(2):207-208. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.01.010. PMID: 33937496; PMCID: PMC8072512.

Wiznia LE, Wang J, Steuer AB, Elbuluk N. Direct-to-consumer dermatology-related advertising differs in magazines targeted to women of color: A cross-sectional analysis of top-circulating consumer magazines. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Jan 18;7(2):191-194. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.01.009. PMID: 33937491; PMCID: PMC8072494.

Maymone MBC, Laughter M, Pollock S, Khan I, Marques T, Abdat R, Goldberg LJ, Vashi NA. Hair aging in different races and ethnicities. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2021 Jan;14(1):38-44. Epub 2021 Jan 1. PMID: 33584967; PMCID: PMC7869811.

Pollock S, Taylor S, Oyerinde O, Nurmohamed S, Dlova N, Sarkar R, Galadari H, Manela-Azulay M, Chung HS, Handog E, Kourosh AS. The dark side of skin lightening: An international collaboration and review of a public health issue affecting dermatology. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2020 Sep 17;7(2):158-164. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2020.09.006. PMID: 33937483; PMCID: PMC8072511.

McColl M, Boozalis E, Aguh C, Eseonu AC, Okoye GA, Kwatra SG. Pruritus in Black Skin: Unique Molecular Characteristics and Clinical Features. J Natl Med Assoc. 2020 Jul 31:S0027-9684(20)30140-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2020.07.002. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32747312.

Massie JP, Cho DY, Kneib CJ, Sousa JD, Morrison SD, Friedrich JB. A Picture of Modern Medicine: Race and Visual Representation in Medical Literature. J Natl Med Assoc. 2020 Aug 1:S0027-9684(20)30153-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2020.07.013. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32753112.

Montgomery SN, Elbuluk N. A quantitative analysis of research publications focused on the top chief complaints in skin of color patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Aug 12:S0190-9622(20)32421-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.08.031. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32800869.

Douglas A, Onalaja AA, Taylor SC. Hair care products used by women of African descent: review of ingredients. Cutis. 2020 Apr;105(4):183-188. PMID: 32463850.

Barbieri JS, Shin DB, Wang S, Margolis DJ, Takeshita J. Association of race/ethnicity and sex with differences in health care use and treatment for acne. JAMA Dermatol. 2020 Mar 1;156(3):312-319. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.4818. PMID: 32022834; PMCID: PMC7042795.

Teteh D, Ericson M, Monice S, Dawkins-Moultin L, Bahadorani N, Clark P, Mitchell E, Treviño LS, Llanos A, Kittles R, Montgomery S. The Black identity, hair product use, and breast cancer scale. PLoS One. 2019 Dec 4;14(12):e0225305. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225305. PMID: 31800594; PMCID: PMC6892488.

Gorbatenko-Roth K, Prose N, Kundu RV, Patterson S. Assessment of Black patients’ perception of their dermatology care. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 Oct 1;155(10):1129-1134. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.2063. PMID: 31433446; PMCID: PMC6704753.

Raffi J, Suresh R, Agbai O. Clinical recognition and management of alopecia in women of color. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2019 Aug 22;5(5):314-319. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2019.08.005. PMID: 31909150; PMCID: PMC6938875.

Benn EKT, Deshpande R, Dotson-Newman O, Gordon S, Scott M, Amarasiriwardena C, Khan IA, Wang YH, Alexis A, Kaufman B, Moran H, Wen C, Charles CAD, Younger NOM, Mohamed N, Liu B. Skin bleaching among African and Afro-Caribbean women in New York City: Primary findings from a P30 pilot study. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2019 Jun;9(2):355-367. doi: 10.1007/s13555-019-0297-y. Epub 2019 Apr 24. PMID: 31020513; PMCID: PMC6522580.

Heath CR. Hair loss in skin of color patients. Cutis. 2019 Apr;103(4):231-232. PMID: 31116819.

Maymone MBC, Watchmaker JD, Dubiel M, Wirya SA, Shen LY, Vashi NA. Common Skin Disorders in Pediatric Skin of Color. J Pediatr Health Care. 2019 Nov-Dec;33(6):727-737. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2019.04.019. PMID: 31655787.

Alexis AF, Callender VD, Baldwin HE, Desai SR, Rendon MI, Taylor SC. Global epidemiology and clinical spectrum of rosacea, highlighting skin of color: Review and clinical practice experience. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jun;80(6):1722-1729.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.08.049. Epub 2018 Sep 19. PMID: 30240779.

Brunner PM, Guttman-Yassky E. Racial differences in atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019 May;122(5):449-455. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2018.11.015. Epub 2018 Nov 20. PMID: 30465859.

Sarkar R, Ailawadi P, Garg S. Melasma in men: a review of clinical, etiological, and management issues. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2018 Feb;11(2):53-59. Epub 2018 Feb 1. PMID: 29552277; PMCID: PMC5843363.

Fischer AH, Shin DB, Margolis DJ, Takeshita J. Racial and ethnic differences in health care utilization for childhood eczema: an analysis of the 2001-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Dec;77(6):1060-1067. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.08.035. Epub 2017 Sep 28. PMID: 28964540; PMCID: PMC5916760.

Taylor SC, Barbosa V, Burgess C, Heath C, McMichael AJ, Ogunleye T, Callender V. Hair and scalp disorders in adult and pediatric patients with skin of color. Cutis. 2017 Jul;100(1):31-35. PMID: 28873105.

Torres V, Herane MI, Costa A, Martin JP, Troielli P. Refining the ideas of “ethnic” skin. An Bras Dermatol. 2017 Mar-Apr;92(2):221-225. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20174846. PMID: 28538883; PMCID: PMC5429109.

Lawson CN, Hollinger J, Sethi S, Rodney I, Sarkar R, Dlova N, Callender VD. Updates in the understanding and treatments of skin & hair disorders in women of color. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2017 Feb 16;3(1 Suppl):S21-S37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.006. PMID: 28492036; PMCID: PMC5419061.

Herskovitz I, Miteva M. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2016 Aug 17;9:175-81. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S100816. PMID: 27574457; PMCID: PMC4993262.

Pandya AG, Alexis AF, Berger TG, Wintroub BU. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in dermatology: A call to action. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Mar;74(3):584-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2015.10.044. Epub 2016 Jan 8. PMID: 26774427.

Stiel L, Adkins-Jackson PB, Clark P, Mitchell E, Montgomery S. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women. Cancer Med. 2016 Mar;5(3):597-604. doi: 10.1002/cam4.613. Epub 2016 Jan 15. PMID: 26773423; PMCID: PMC4799949.

Vashi NA, de Castro Maymone MB, Kundu RV. Aging differences in ethnic skin. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016 Jan;9(1):31-8. PMID: 26962390; PMCID: PMC4756870.

Al-Dabagh A, Davis SA, McMichael AJ, Feldman SR. Rosacea in skin of color: Not a rare diagnosis. Dermatol Online J. 2014 Oct 15;20(10):13030/qt1mv9r0ss. PMID: 25526008.

Verma SM, Okawa J, Propert KJ, Werth VP. The impact of skin damage due to cutaneous lupus on quality of life. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Feb;170(2):315-21. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12653. PMID: 24111880; PMCID: PMC4878997.

Gelber AC, Manno RL, Shah AA, Woods A, Le EN, Boin F, Hummers LK, Wigley FM. Race and association with disease manifestations and mortality in scleroderma: a 20-year experience at the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2013 Jul;92(4):191-205. doi: 10.1097/MD.0b013e31829be125. PMID: 23793108; PMCID: PMC4553970.

Davis SA, Narahari S, Feldman SR, Huang W, Pichardo-Geisinger RO, McMichael AJ. Top dermatologic conditions in patients of color: an analysis of nationally representative data. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012 Apr;11(4):466-73. PMID: 22453583.

Heath CR, David J, Taylor SC. Sarcoidosis: Are there differences in your skin of color patients? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Jan;66(1):121.e1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2010.06.068. Epub 2011 Oct 14. PMID: 22000704.

Henderson MD, Abboud J, Cogan CM, Poisson LM, Eide MJ, Shwayder TA, Lim HW. Skin-of-color epidemiology: a report of the most common skin conditions by race. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012 Sep-Oct;29(5):584-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01775.x. Epub 2012 May 29. PMID: 22639933.

Hirano SA, Murray SB, Harvey VM. Reporting, representation, and subgroup analysis of race and ethnicity in published clinical trials of atopic dermatitis in the United States between 2000 and 2009. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012 Nov-Dec;29(6):749-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01797.x. Epub 2012 Sep 28. PMID: 23017105.

Hinds GA, Heald P. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Mar;60(3):359-75; quiz 376-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.10.031. PMID: 19231637.

Alexis AF, Sergay AB, Taylor SC. Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey. Cutis. 2007 Nov;80(5):387-94. PMID: 18189024.

Gelfand JM, Stern RS, Nijsten T, Feldman SR, Thomas J, Kist J, Rolstad T, Margolis DJ. The prevalence of psoriasis in African Americans: results from a population-based study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Jan;52(1):23-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2004.07.045. PMID: 15627076.

Taylor SC, Cook-Bolden F, Rahman Z, Strachan D. Acne vulgaris in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Feb;46(2 Suppl Understanding):S98-106. doi: 10.1067/mjd.2002.120791. PMID: 11807471.

Taylor SC, Kelly AP, Dupree NE, Kimball AB, Lawrence RC. Health disparities in arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases-the dermatology session: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, December 15-16, 2000. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Nov;47(5):770-3. doi: 10.1067/mjd.2002.124691. PMID: 12399772.

Digital Resources

 

For Professionals:

For Patients:

Print Resources

2022

Errichetti, E., & Lallas, A. (2022). Dermoscopy in general dermatology for skin of color. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

2021

Donkor, C. M. Y. A., Aryee-Boi, J., Osazuwa, I. R., Afflu, F. K., & Alexis, A. F. (2021). Atlas of dermatological conditions in populations of African ancestry. Cham: Springer.

Relhan, V., Garg, V. K., Ghunawat, S., et al. (2021). Comprehensive textbook on vitiligo. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Shah, M. K., & Sheth, P. K. (2021). Pediatric dermatology in skin of color: A practical guide. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

2020

Inamadar, A. C., & Palit, A. (2020). Systemic sclerosis: An illustrated guide to manifestation and management in Asian skin. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Lee, J. D., Lee, J. K., & Oh M. J. M. (2020). Principles and choice of laser treatment in dermatology: With special reference to the Asian population. Singapore: Springer Singapore.

Moiin, A. (2020). Atlas of black skin. Cham: Springer International.

Mukwende, M., Tamony, P., & Turner, M. (2020). Mind the gap: A handbook of clinical signs in black and brown skin. London: St. George’s, University of London.

2018

Aguh, C., & Okoye, G. A. (2018). Fundamentals of ethnic hair: The dermatologist’s perspective. Cham: Springer International.

Carniol, P. J., & Monheit, G. D. (2018). Aesthetic rejuvenation challenges and solutions: A world perspective. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Handog, E. B., & Enriquez-Macarayo, M. J. (2018). Melasma and vitiligo in brown skin. New Delhi: Springer India.

Kumarasinghe, P. (2018). Pigmentary skin disorders. Cham: Springer International.

Lenzy, Y. (2018). Getting to the root book: A dermatologist and cosmetologist’s guide to understanding HAIR! Massachusetts: Kingdom Root Publishing.

McMichael, A. J., & Hordinsky, M. K. (2018). Hair and scalp disorders: Medical, surgical, and cosmetic treatments. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Orfanos, C. E., Zouboulis, C. C., & Assaf, C. (2018). Pigmented ethnic skin and imported dermatoses: A text-atlas. Cham: Springer International.

2017

Florian, M. C., Tomimori, J., Mendonça, S. B. M., & Rodrigues, D. A. (2017). Dermatological atlas of indigenous people. Cham: Springer International.

Vashi, N. A., & Maibach, H. I. (2017). Dermatoanthropology of ethnic skin and hair. Cham: Springer International.

2016

Kelly, A. P., Taylor, S. C., Lim, H. W., & Anido, S. A. M.. (2016). Taylor and Kelly’s dermatology for skin of color (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Love, P. B., & Kundu, R. V. (2016). Clinical cases in skin of color: Adnexal, inflammation, infections, and pigmentary disorders. Cham: Springer International.

Love, P. B., & Kundu, R. V. (2016). Clinical cases in skin of color: Medical, oncological and hair disorders, and cosmetic dermatology. Cham: Springer International.

Silverberg, N.B., Duran-McKinster, C., & Tay Y. K. (2016). Pediatric skin of color. New York: Springer.

2014

Chua, S. H., Goh, C. L., Ng, S. K., & Tan, S. H. (2014). Asian skin: A reference colour atlas of dermatology & venereology (2nd ed.). Singapore: McGraw Hill Education.

Jablonski, N. G. (2014). Living color – the biological and social meaning of skin color. California: University of California Press.

Jackson-Richards, D., & Pandya, A. G. (2014). Dermatology atlas for skin of color. Heidelberg: Springer.

Khumalo, N. P. (2014). African skin and hair disorders, an issue of dermatologic clinics. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Yusuf, S. M. (2014) African dermatology. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.

2013

Alexis, A. F., & Barbosa, V. H. (2013). Skin of color: A practical guide to dermatologic diagnosis and treatment. New York: Springer.

Dadzie, O. E., Alexis, A. F., & Petit, A. (2013). Ethnic dermatology: principles and practice. West Sussex: John, Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2012

Khopkar, U. S. (2012). Dermoscopy and trichoscopy in diseases of the brown skin: Atlas and short text. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher.

Lugo-Somolinos, A., & McKinley-Grant, L. (2012). VisualDx: Essential dermatology in pigmented skin. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

2011

Taylor, S. C., Gathers R. C., Badreshia-Bansai, S., et al. (2011). Treatments for skin of color. Edinburgh: Saunders/Elsevier.

Tay, Y.-K., & Chan, Y.-C. (2011). Textbook of laser and light dermatology in the Asian skin. Singapore: World Scientific.

2009

Alam, M., Bhatia A. C., Kundu, R., et al. (2009). Cosmetic dermatology for skin of color. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Archer, C. B. (2009). Ethnic dermatology: Clinical problems and skin pigmentation (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Baron, E. D. (2009). Light-based therapies for skin of color. Dordrecht: Springer.

2008

Goldberg, D. J. (2008). Lasers and lights: Volume 2: Rejuvenation, resurfacing, treatment of ethnic skin, and treatment of cellulite. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.

Grimes, P. E. (2008). Aesthetics and cosmetic surgery for darker skin types. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Persadsingh, N. (2008). The hair in black women. United States: Xulon Press.

Sheikh, A., & Gatrad, A.R. (2008) Caring for Muslim patients. Oxford: Radcliffe.

2007

Berardesca, E., Leveque, J.-L., & Maibach, H. I. (2007). Ethnic skin and hair. New York: Informa Healthcare.

2006

Connolly, C., & Bikowski, J. (2006). Dermatological atlas of black skin. Weybridge, Surrey: Merit Publishing International.

Halder, R. M. (2006). Dermatology and dermatological therapy of pigmented skins. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.

2005

Downie, J., Cook-Bolden, F., & Nevins, T. B. (2005). Beautiful skin of color: A comprehensive guide to Asian, olive, and dark skin. New York: HarperCollins.

2004

White, G. M. (2004). Color atlas of dermatology (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Mosby.

2002

Leppard, B. (2002). An atlas of African dermatology. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press.

See More

Ng, S. K., & Goh, C. L. (2001). The principles and practice of contact and occupational dermatology in Asia Pacific region. River Edge, N.J: World Scientific.

Preciado, M. D. (1989). Practical dermatology in pigmented skin. London: Inn Publishing.

Johnson, J. B. L., Moy, R. L., & White, G. M. (1998). Ethnic skin: Medical and surgical. St. Louis: Mosby.

Archer, C. B., & Robertson, S. J. (1995). Black and white skin diseases: An atlas and text. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Parish, L. C., Millikan, L. E., & Amer, M. (1994). Global dermatology: Diagnosis and management according to geography, climate, and culture. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Schaller, K. F., & Bahmer, F. A. (1994). Colour atlas of tropical dermatology and venerology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Montagna, W., Kenney, J. A., & Prota, G. (1993). Black skin: Structure and function. San Diego: Academic Press.

Basset, A., Liautaud, B., Ndiaye, B., & Pembroke, A. (1986). Dermatology of black skin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rosen, T., & Martin, S. (1981). Atlas of Black dermatology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Updated September 2, 2021.