Project IMPACT Resources

Reducing healthcare bias in skin of color through education, information, and shared resources.



Key Research

Click on each heading to view important research in that subject area. Are we missing something you think should be included? Let us know.

Healthcare Disparities in People of Color

Kolla AM, Berwick M, Polsky D. Differentiating between lead-time bias and true survival benefits when discussing racial and ethnic disparities in melanoma. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Apr 20. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.0330. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35442387.

Moseley IH, Ragi SD, Lombardi A. Racial disparities in the management of skin ulcers: an analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2012-2018. J Dermatolog Treat. 2022 Apr 22:1-4. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2022.2067821. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35435094.

Nguyen B, Bray FN. Access to dermatologic care in American Indian and Alaska Native communities. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr 23:S0190-9622(22)00691-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.04.026. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35472325.

Omar D, Syder N, Brown-Korsah JB, McKenzie S, Elbuluk N, Taylor SC. Racial and ethnic disparities in clinical research and the dermatology workforce. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr 4:S0190-9622(22)00544-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.03.052. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35390428.

Shah N, Ghatnekar S, Nambudiri VE. Variability of over-the-counter spending on acne treatment across race and demographic characteristics. Clin Dermatol. 2022 Apr 13:S0738-081X(22)00051-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2022.02.017. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35429623.

Bai X, Shoushtari AN, Betof Warner A, et al. Benefit and toxicity to PD-1 blockade varies by ethnicity in patients with advanced melanoma: an international multicenter observational study. Br J Dermatol. 2022 Mar 16. doi: 10.1111/bjd.21241. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35293617.

Duan GY, Ruiz De Luzuriaga AM, Schroedl LM, Rosenblatt AE. Disparities in telemedicine use during the COVID-19 pandemic among pediatric dermatology patients. Pediatr Dermatol. 2022 Mar 18. doi: 10.1111/pde.14982. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35302248.

Robinson I, Lee L, Cotton C. The impact of racial differences on treatment strategies in hidradenitis suppurativa: a retrospective review. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022 Mar 1;21(3):270-275. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6446. PMID: 35254766.

Takeshita J, Chau J, Callis Duffin K, Goel N. Promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion for psoriatic diseases. J Rheumatol. 2022 Mar 15:jrheum.211330. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.211330. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35293335.

Hooper J, Shao K, Feng H. Racial/ethnic health disparities in dermatology in the United States. Part 1: overview of contributing factors and management strategies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb 7:S0190-9622(22)00194-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.12.061. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35143914.

Shao K, Hooper J, Feng H. Racial/ethnic health disparities in dermatology in the United States. Part 2: disease-specific epidemiology, characteristics, management, and outcomes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb 7:S0190-9622(22)00195-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.12.062. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35143915.

Chen V, Akhtar S, Zheng C, Kumaresan V, Nouri K. Assessment of changes in diversity in dermatology clinical trials between 2010-2015 and 2015-2020: a systematic review. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Mar 1;158(3):288-292. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.5596. PMID: 35080592; PMCID: PMC8792791.

Rezk E, Eltorki M, El-Dakhakhni W. Leveraging artificial intelligence to improve diversity of dermatological skin color pathology: protocol for an algorithm development and validation study. JMIR Res Protoc. 2022 Mar 8;11(3):e34896. doi: 10.2196/34896. PMID: 34983017; PMCID: PMC8941446.

Doolan BJ, Saikal SL, Scaria A, Gupta M. Patient factors associated with dermatology outpatient non-attendance: an analysis of racial and ethnic diversity. Clin Dermatol. 2022 Jan 1:S0738-081X(21)00271-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2021.12.013. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34983001.

US Preventive Services Task Force, Davidson KW, Mangione CM, et al. Actions to Transform US Preventive Services Task Force Methods to Mitigate Systemic Racism in Clinical Preventive ServicesJAMA. 2021;326(23):2405-2411. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.17594

Lin JS, Hoffman L, Bean SI, et al. Addressing Racism in Preventive Services: Methods Report to Support the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2021;326(23):2412-2420. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.17579

Blackshear TB, Kilmon K. Natural hair: a vital component to Black women’s health. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2021 Dec;8(6):1573-1582. doi: 10.1007/s40615-020-00922-4. Epub 2020 Nov 17. PMID: 33201404.

Collins HN, Johnson PI, Calderon NM, Clark PY, Gillis AD, Le AM, Nguyen D, Nguyen C, Fu L, O’Dwyer T, Harley KG. Differences in personal care product use by race/ethnicity among women in California: implications for chemical exposures. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2021 Dec 24. doi: 10.1038/s41370-021-00404-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34952926.

Roh YS, Choi J, Sutaria N, Kwatra SG. Itch: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic workup. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Jan;86(1):1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.076. Epub 2021 Aug 21. PMID: 34428534; PMCID: PMC8678917.

Vasavda C, Tang O, Kwatra SG, Ho BK, Grossberg AL. Asymmetric patterns of patient access to in-person and teledermatologic healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic [published online ahead of print, 2021 Dec 18]. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021;S0190-9622(21)02991-1.

Linggonegoro DW, Kempf A, Cai CR, Shobiye DM, Hahn PD, Graham D, Alfieri M, Flores XS, Alvernaz L, Esty B, Delano S, Huang JT. Disparities in attendance of virtual and in-person pediatric dermatology clinics in minority populations: a cross-sectional analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Oct 28:S0190-9622(21)02717-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.10.037. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34756936.

Raval NS, Hodges WT, Ugwu-Dike PO, Godoy F, Ansstas G, Cornelius LA, Musiek AC, Asgari MM, Semenov YR. Racial and socioeconomic differences in acral lentiginous melanoma outcomes: a SEER analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Nov 20:S0190-9622(21)02856-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.11.023. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34813908.

Cox G, Sobrany S, Jenkins E, Musipa C, Darbyshire P. Untangling the roots of hair racism in the nursing profession. Br J Nurs. 2021 Oct 14;30(18):1090-1092. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2021.30.18.1090. PMID: 34645336.

Cox G, Sobrany S, Jenkins E, Musipa C, Darbyshire P. Will nurse leaders help eradicate ‘hair racism’ from nursing and health services? J Nurs Manag. 2021 Oct;29(7):2014-2017. doi: 10.1111/jonm.13286. Epub 2021 Mar 22. PMID: 33604971.

Fabregas JC, Carter BT, Lutzky J, Robinson WR 3rd, Brant JM. Impact of Medicaid expansion status and race on metastatic disease at diagnosis in patients with melanoma. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2021 Oct 14. doi: 10.1007/s40615-021-01166-6. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34648145.

McMahon DE, Semeere A, Laker-Oketta M, Byakwaga H, Mugglin C, Duda SN, Azwa I, Jaquet A, Cardoso SW, Nash D, Wester CW, Freeman EE; International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). Global disparities in skin cancer services at HIV treatment centers across 29 countries. J Invest Dermatol. 2021 Oct;141(10):2533-2536.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2021.02.758. Epub 2021 Apr 14. PMID: 33864771; PMCID: PMC8464481.

Ding J, Joseph M, Yau N, Khosa F. Underreporting of race and ethnicity in pediatric atopic dermatitis clinical trials: a cross-sectional analysis of demographic reporting and representation. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Sep 4. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20740. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34480338.

Shwe S, Nguyen C, Bhutani T. Racial disparities in clinical trials of biologic treatments for psoriatic arthritis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Aug 28:S0190-9622(21)02381-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.08.038. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34464628.

Nickles MA, Tsoukas MM. Racial distribution of participants in nonmelanoma skin cancer clinical trials from 2010 to 2020. Dermatol Surg. 2021 Sep 1;47(9):1278-1281. doi: 10.1097/DSS.0000000000003121. PMID: 34448765.

Khosla NN, Grullon K, Rosenblatt AE. Virtual group visits to reduce psychosocial distress and racial disparities in pediatric vitiligo and alopecia areata patients. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 26. doi: 10.1111/pde.14782. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34448243.

Desai SR, McMichael AJ, Khanna R. Coronavirus disease 2019 and race in dermatology. Dermatol Clin. 2021 Oct;39(4):569-574. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2021.05.003. Epub 2021 Jul 29. PMID: 34556246; PMCID: PMC8452265.

Ha MV, Wong C. Racial representation in clinical trials for dermatologic new molecular entities.Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Feb;47(2):386-388. doi: 10.1111/ced.14871. Epub 2021 Sep 7. PMID: 34346107.

Junejo MH, Sheikh UA. Human papillomavirus: inequalities in disease prevention and the impact on racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minorities. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 5. doi: 10.1111/pde.14740. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34351009.

Kuo A, Silverberg N, Fernandez Faith E, Morgan R, Todd P. A systematic scoping review of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic health disparities in pediatric dermatology. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.1111/pde.14755. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34409633.

Marchetti MA, Adamson AS, Halpern AC. Melanoma and racial health disparities in Black individuals: facts, fallacies, and fixes. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.2215. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34287652.

Volkmann ER, Steen V, Li N, Roth MD, Clements PJ, Furst DE, Assassi S, Khanna D, Kim GJ, Goldin J, Elashoff RM, Tashkin DP. Racial disparities in systemic sclerosis: short- and long-term outcomes among African American participants of SLS I and II. ACR Open Rheumatol. 2021 Jan;3(1):8-16. doi: 10.1002/acr2.11206. Epub 2020 Dec 5. PMID: 33277978; PMCID: PMC7811695.

Perlman KL, Klein EJ, Park JH. Racial disparities in dermatology training: the impact on black patients. Cutis. 2020 Dec;106(6):300-301. doi: 10.12788/cutis.0135. PMID: 33471883.

Bakhtiar M, Elbuluk N, Lipoff JB. The digital divide: How COVID-19’s telemedicine expansion could exacerbate disparities. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Nov;83(5):e345-e346. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.07.043. Epub 2020 Jul 16. PMID: 32682890; PMCID: PMC7365110.

Wang LL, Adelekun A, Taylor SC, Lipoff JB. Fee-for-service and structural forces may drive racial disparities in US dermatology. Br J Dermatol. 2020 Oct;183(4):750-751. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19217. Epub 2020 Jul 5. PMID: 32406519.

2019 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; December 2020. AHRQ Pub. No. 20(21)-0045-EF.

Price KN, Hsiao JL, Shi VY. Race and ethnicity gaps in global hidradenitis suppurativa clinical trials. Dermatology. 2021;237(1):97-102. doi: 10.1159/000504911. Epub 2019 Dec 20. PMID: 31865334.

American Cancer Society. (2019) Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans 2019-2021. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

Wan J, Margolis DJ, Mitra N, Hoffstad OJ, Takeshita J. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Atopic Dermatitis-Related School Absences Among US Children. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 May 22:e190597. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.0597. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 31116350; PMCID: PMC6537763.

Jothishankar B, Stein SL. Impact of skin color and ethnicity. Clin Dermatol. 2019 Sep-Oct;37(5):418-429. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.009. Epub 2019 Jul 17. PMID: 31896399.

Takeshita J, Eriksen WT, Raziano VT, Bocage C, Hur L, Shah RV, Gelfand JM, Barg FK. Racial differences in perceptions of psoriasis therapies: Implications for racial disparities in psoriasis treatment. J Invest Dermatol. 2019 Aug;139(8):1672-1679.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2018.12.032. Epub 2019 Feb 6. PMID: 30738054; PMCID: PMC6650313.

Schoenberg E, Wang JV, Duffy R, Keller M. Uncovering Unconscious Bias and Health Disparities in the Practice of Dermatology. Skinmed. 2019 Nov 1;17(6):367-368. PMID: 31904324.

Artiga S, Orgera K, Damico A. (2019). Changes in health coverage by race and ethnicity since implementation of the ACA, 2013-2017. San Francisco, CA: Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation.

American Cancer Society. (2018) Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2018-2020. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

Park CK, Alhusayen R. Representation and treatment allocation of racial groups in dermatologic therapy trials: a 2-year review of the literature. Dermatol Online J. 2018 Feb 15;24(2):13030/qt62d6v7c5. PMID: 29630148.

Rogers AT, Semenov YR, Kwatra SG, Okoye GA. Racial disparities in the management of acne: evidence from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2005-2014. J Dermatolog Treat. 2018 May;29(3):287-289. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2017.1371836. Epub 2017 Sep 11. PMID: 28831837.

Kaufman BP, Guttman-Yassky E, Alexis AF. Atopic dermatitis in diverse racial and ethnic groups: variations in epidemiology, genetics, clinical presentation and treatment. Exp Dermatol. 2018 Apr;27(4):340-357. doi: 10.1111/exd.13514. PMID: 29457272.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Baciu A, Negussie Y, Geller A, Weinstein JN, editors. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2017 Jan 11. PMID: 28418632.

National Center for Health Statistics (US). Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2016 May. Report No.: 2016-1232. PMID: 27308685

Jackson C, Maibach H. Ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in dermatology. J Dermatolog Treat. 2016;27(3):290-1. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2015.1101409. Epub 2015 Nov 2. PMID: 26418077.

Ray KN, Chari AV, Engberg J, Bertolet M, Mehrotra A. Disparities in Time Spent Seeking Medical Care in the United States. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Dec;175(12):1983-6. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.4468. PMID: 26437386; PMCID: PMC5055855.

Monk EP Jr. The Cost of Color: Skin Color, Discrimination, and Health among African-Americans. AJS. 2015 Sep;121(2):396-444. doi: 10.1086/682162. PMID: 26594713.

Oh SS, Galanter J, Thakur N, Pino-Yanes M, Barcelo NE, White MJ, de Bruin DM, Greenblatt RM, Bibbins-Domingo K, Wu AH, Borrell LN, Gunter C, Powe NR, Burchard EG. Diversity in Clinical and Biomedical Research: A Promise Yet to Be Fulfilled. PLoS Med. 2015 Dec 15;12(12):e1001918. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001918. PMID: 26671224; PMCID: PMC4679830.

Chen MS Jr, Lara PN, Dang JH, Paterniti DA, Kelly K. Twenty years post-NIH Revitalization Act: enhancing minority participation in clinical trials (EMPaCT): laying the groundwork for improving minority clinical trial accrual: renewing the case for enhancing minority participation in cancer clinical trials. Cancer. 2014 Apr 1;120 Suppl 7(0 7):1091-6. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28575. PMID: 24643646; PMCID: PMC3980490.

Buster KJ, Stevens EI, Elmets CA. Dermatologic health disparities. Dermatol Clin. 2012 Jan;30(1):53-9, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2011.08.002. PMID: 22117867; PMCID: PMC3742002.

Gaskin DJ, Dinwiddie GY, Chan KS, McCleary RR. Residential segregation and the availability of primary care physicians. Health Serv Res. 2012 Dec;47(6):2353-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2012.01417.x. Epub 2012 Apr 23. PMID: 22524264; PMCID: PMC3416972.

Sauaia A, Dellavalle RP. Health care inequities: an introduction for dermatology providers. Dermatol Clin. 2009 Apr;27(2):103-7, v. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2008.12.001. PMID: 19254652; PMCID: PMC2677554.

Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2009). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

Wong MD, Ettner SL, Boscardin WJ, Shapiro MF. The contribution of cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and survival to racial differences in years of life expectancy. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Apr;24(4):475-81. doi: 10.1007/s11606-009-0912-1. Epub 2009 Feb 3. PMID: 19189193; PMCID: PMC2659154.

Washington DL, Bowles J, Saha S, Horowitz CR, Moody-Ayers S, Brown AF, Stone VE, Cooper LA; Writing group for the Society of General Internal Medicine, Disparities in Health Task Force. Transforming clinical practice to eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in healthcare. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 May;23(5):685-91. doi: 10.1007/s11606-007-0481-0. Epub 2008 Jan 15. PMID: 18196352; PMCID: PMC2324135.

Chen FM, Fryer GE Jr, Phillips RL Jr, Wilson E, Pathman DE. Patients’ beliefs about racism, preferences for physician race, and satisfaction with care. Ann Fam Med. 2005 Mar-Apr;3(2):138-43. doi: 10.1370/afm.282. PMID: 15798040; PMCID: PMC1466852.

Betancourt JR, Maina AW. The Institute of Medicine report “Unequal Treatment”: implications for academic health centers. Mt Sinai J Med. 2004 Oct;71(5):314-21. PMID: 15543432.

Ghafoor A, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, Cardinez C, Murray T, Samuels A, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics for African Americans. CA Cancer J Clin. 2002 Nov-Dec;52(6):326-41. doi: 10.3322/canjclin.52.6.326. PMID: 12469762.

Skin Cancer in People of Color

Adamson AS, Suarez EA, Welch HG. Estimating overdiagnosis of melanoma using trends among Black and White patients in the US. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Apr 1;158(4):426-431. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.0139. PMID: 35293957; PMCID: PMC8928089.

Mosallaei D, Lee EB, Lobl M, et al. Rare cutaneous malignancies in skin of color. Dermatol Surg. 2022 Apr 6. doi: 10.1097/DSS.0000000000003440. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35384892.

Chen ML, de Vere Hunt IJ, John EM, et al. Differences in thickness-specific Incidence and factors associated with cutaneous melanoma in the US from 2010 to 2018. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Mar 24. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0134. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35323844.

Cwalina TB, Jella TK, Tripathi R, Carroll BT. Financial stress among skin cancer patients: a cross-sectional review of the 2013-2018 National Health Interview Survey. Arch Dermatol Res. 2022 Feb 22:1–8. doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02330-6. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35192005; PMCID: PMC8861625.

Dusendang JR, Carlson E, Lee DS, et al. Cohort and nested case-control study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in solid organ transplant recipients, by medication. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar;86(3):598-606. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.065. Epub 2021 Aug 9. PMID: 34384835.

Meijs M, Herrera A, Acosta A, de Vries E. Burden of skin cancer in Colombia. Int J Dermatol. 2022 Feb 9. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16077. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35141880.

Abraham J, Wei G, Desai SR, Seminario-Vidal L. A cross-sectional analysis of quality-of-life in skin of color patients with cutaneous t-cell lymphoma: an exploratory study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Jan 24:S0190-9622(22)00100-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.01.022. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35085681.

Alicea GM, Rebecca VW. Un-fair skin: racial disparities in acral melanoma research. Nat Rev Cancer. 2022 Mar;22(3):127-128. doi: 10.1038/s41568-022-00443-8. PMID: 35075287.

Asadi LK, Khalili A, Wang SQ. The sociological basis of the skin cancer epidemic. Int J Dermatol. 2022 Jan 12. doi: 10.1111/ijd.15987. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35020194.

Blumenthal LY, Arzeno J, Syder N, et al. Disparities in nonmelanoma skin cancer in Hispanic/Latino patients based on Mohs micrographic surgery defect size: a multicenter retrospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb;86(2):353-358. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.08.052. Epub 2021 Oct 5. PMID: 34624413.

Niu Z, Tortolero-Luna G, Lozada C, Heckman CJ, Coups EJ. Correlates of sun protection behaviors among adults in Puerto Rico. Int J Behav Med. 2022 Feb;29(1):36-45. doi: 10.1007/s12529-021-09991-z. Epub 2021 Apr 30. PMID: 33928477.

Supapannachart KJ, Chen SC, Wang Y, Yeung H. Skin cancer risk factors and screening among Asian American individuals. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Mar 1;158(3):260-265. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.5657. PMID: 35080583; PMCID: PMC8792799.

Sheinson DM, Wong WB, Meyer CS, Stergiopoulos S, Lofgren KT, Flores C, Adams DV, Fleury ME. Trends in use of next-generation sequencing in patients with solid tumors by race and ethnicity after implementation of the Medicare National Coverage Determination. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Dec 1;4(12):e2138219. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.38219. PMID: 34882180; PMCID: PMC8662372.

Willingham ML Jr, Spencer SYPK, Lum CA, Navarro Sanchez JM, Burnett T, Shepherd J, Cassel K. The potential of using artificial intelligence to improve skin cancer diagnoses in Hawai’i’s multiethnic population. Melanoma Res. 2021 Dec 1;31(6):504-514. doi: 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000779. PMID: 34744150; PMCID: PMC8580213.

Zakhem GA, Pulavarty AN, Lester JC, Stevenson ML. Skin cancer in people of color: a systematic review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2022 Mar;23(2):137-151. doi: 10.1007/s40257-021-00662-z. Epub 2021 Dec 13. PMID: 34902111.

Martinez XU, Chowdhury A, Stiller T, Palmer J, Loscalzo M, Barrios E, Abdulla FR, Zain J, Rosen ST, Querfeld C. The impact of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and stage on quality of life in a spectrum of cutaneous lymphomas. Support Care Cancer. 2021 Nov;29(11):6669-6679. doi: 10.1007/s00520-021-06241-6. Epub 2021 May 7. PMID: 33963457.

Wen D, Khan SM, Xu AJ, Ibrahim H, Smith L, Caballero J, Zepeda L, de Blas Perez C, Denniston AK, Liu X, Matin RN. Characteristics of publicly available skin cancer image datasets: a systematic review. Lancet Digit Health. 2022 Jan;4(1):e64-e74. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00252-1. Epub 2021 Nov 9. PMID: 34772649.

Asare EA, Swami U, Stewart JH 4th. Landmark series on disparities in surgical oncology: melanoma.Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Nov;28(12):6986-6993. doi: 10.1245/s10434-021-10273-x. Epub 2021 Jun 30. PMID: 34191178.

Bernardes SS, Ferreira I, Elder DE, Nobre AB, Martínez-Said H, Adams DJ, Robles-Espinoza CD, Possik PA. More than just acral melanoma: the controversies of defining the disease. J Pathol Clin Res. 2021 Nov;7(6):531-541. doi: 10.1002/cjp2.233. Epub 2021 Jul 2. PMID: 34213090; PMCID: PMC8503895.

Lam M, Zhu JW, Hu A, Beecker J. Racial differences in the prognosis and survival of cutaneous melanoma from 1990 to 2020 in North America: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cutan Med Surg. 2022 Mar-Apr;26(2):181-188. doi: 10.1177/12034754211052866. Epub 2021 Oct 22. PMID: 34676795; PMCID: PMC8950707.

Parada H Jr, Vu AH, Pinheiro PS, Thompson CA. Comparing age at cancer diagnosis between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2021 Oct;30(10):1904-1912. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0389. Epub 2021 Jul 28. PMID: 34321282; PMCID: PMC8492520.

Oh CC, Jin A, Koh WP. Trends of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma among the Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore from 1968-2016. JAAD Int. 2021 Jun 30;4:39-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jdin.2021.05.006. PMID: 34409390; PMCID: PMC8361884.

Jacobsen AA, Ufkes NA, Cain N, Maisonet J, Kirsner R, Strasswimmer J. Healthy skin for everyone: long-term effectiveness of a multicomponent, community-based skin cancer intervention program for an underserved Hispanic population. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Oct;85(4):1004-1006. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.09.071. Epub 2020 Oct 1. PMID: 33010322.

Yan BY, Barilla S, Strunk A, Garg A. Survival differences in acral lentiginous melanoma according to socioeconomic status and race. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb;86(2):379-386. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.049. Epub 2021 Aug 4. PMID: 34363907.

Hadeler E, Beer J, Uppal S, Nouri K. Identifying areas for improvement in remote skin cancer management: surveillance, diagnostics, and skin of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):792-793. doi: 10.36849/JDD.5731. PMID: 34231991.

Nickles MA, Kulkarni V, Garg SP, Patel MM, Kirchner A, Prabhu AV. Racial diversity in melanoma research from 2015 to 2020: a cross-sectional study. Int J Dermatol. 2021 Jul 2. doi: 10.1111/ijd.15763. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34212372.

Sierro TJ, Blumenthal LY, Hekmatjah J, Chat VS, Kassardjian AA, Read C, Armstrong AW. Differences in healthcare resource utilization and costs for keratinocyte carcinoma among racioethnic groups: a population-based study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb;86(2):373-378. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.005. Epub 2021 Jul 9. PMID: 34246700.

Lopes FCPS, Sleiman MG, Sebastian K, Bogucka R, Jacobs EA, Adamson AS. UV exposure and the risk of cutaneous melanoma in skin of color: A systematic review. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Feb 1;157(2):213-219. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2020.4616. PMID: 33325988.

Cortez JL, Vasquez J, Wei ML. The impact of demographics, socioeconomics, and healthcare access on melanoma outcomes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Aug 9:S0190-9622(20)32405-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.07.125. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32783908.

Sanchez DP, Maymone MBC, McLean EO, Kennedy KF, Sahni D, Secemsky EA, Vashi NA. Racial and ethnic disparities in melanoma awareness: A cross-sectional survey. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Oct;83(4):1098-1103. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.04.137. Epub 2020 May 5. PMID: 32380221.

Nelson B. How dermatology is failing melanoma patients with skin of color: Unanswered questions on risk and eye-opening disparities in outcomes are weighing heavily on melanoma patients with darker skin. In this article, part 1 of a 2-part series, we explore the deadly consequences of racism and inequality in cancer care. Cancer Cytopathol. 2020 Jan;128(1):7-8. doi: 10.1002/cncy.22229. PMID: 31905269.

Tripathi R, Archibald LK, Mazmudar RS, Conic RRZ, Rothermel LD, Scott JF, Bordeaux JS. Racial differences in time to treatment for melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Sep;83(3):854-859. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.094. Epub 2020 Apr 8. PMID: 32277971; PMCID: PMC7141633.

Culp MB, Lunsford NB. Melanoma among non-Hispanic Black Americans. Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Jun 20;16:E79. doi: 10.5888/pcd16.180640. PMID: 31228233; PMCID: PMC6638592.

Hogue L, Harvey VM. Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Cutaneous Melanoma in Skin of Color Patients. Dermatol Clin. 2019 Oct;37(4):519-526. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2019.05.009. PMID: 31466591.

Perez MI. Skin Cancer in Hispanics in the United States. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Mar 1;18(3):s117-120. PMID: 30909356.

Adamson AS, Zhou L, Baggett CD, Thomas NE, Meyer AM. Association of Delays in Surgery for Melanoma With Insurance Type. JAMA Dermatol. 2017 Nov 1;153(11):1106-1113. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.3338. PMID: 28979974; PMCID: PMC5710439.

Mahendraraj K, Sidhu K, Lau CSM, McRoy GJ, Chamberlain RS, Smith FO. Malignant Melanoma in African-Americans: A Population-Based Clinical Outcomes Study Involving 1106 African-American Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) Database (1988-2011). Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Apr;96(15):e6258. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000006258. PMID: 28403068; PMCID: PMC5403065.

Dawes SM, Tsai S, Gittleman H, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Bordeaux JS. Racial disparities in melanoma survival. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Nov;75(5):983-991. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.06.006. Epub 2016 Jul 28. PMID: 27476974.

Kailas A, Solomon JA, Mostow EN, Rigel DS, Kittles R, Taylor SC. Gaps in the understanding and treatment of skin cancer in people of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 May;74(5):1020-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2015.11.028. PMID: 27085237.

Wang Y, Zhao Y, Ma S. Racial differences in six major subtypes of melanoma: descriptive epidemiology. BMC Cancer. 2016 Aug 30;16(1):691. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2747-6. PMID: 27576582; PMCID: PMC5004333.

Bradford PT. Skin cancer in skin of color. Dermatol Nurs. 2009 Jul-Aug;21(4):170-7, 206; quiz 178. PMID: 19691228; PMCID: PMC2757062.

Rouhani P, Hu S, Kirsner RS. Melanoma in Hispanic and black Americans. Cancer Control. 2008 Jul;15(3):248-53. doi: 10.1177/107327480801500308. PMID: 18596677.

Cormier JN, Xing Y, Ding M, Lee JE, Mansfield PF, Gershenwald JE, Ross MI, Du XL. Ethnic differences among patients with cutaneous melanoma. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 25;166(17):1907-14. doi: 10.1001/archinte.166.17.1907. PMID: 17000949.

Gloster HM Jr, Neal K. Skin cancer in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Nov;55(5):741-60; quiz 761-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2005.08.063. PMID: 17052479.

Hu S, Soza-Vento RM, Parker DF, Kirsner RS. Comparison of stage at diagnosis of melanoma among Hispanic, black, and white patients in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Jun;142(6):704-8. doi: 10.1001/archderm.142.6.704. PMID: 16785372.

Representation in Education & Resources

Akintilo L, Pulavarty A, Onwudiwe O, et al. Skin of color representation in cosmetic clinical trials: a literature review. Lasers Surg Med. 2022 Apr 4. doi: 10.1002/lsm.23546. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35373845.

Ji-Xu A, Artounian K, Moezinia CJ. Absence of skin of colour images in online dermatology atlases and open-access datasets. Med Teach. 2022 Apr 27:1. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2022.2067744. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35477410.

Jia JL, Gordon JS, Lester JC, et al. Integrating skin of color and sexual and gender minority content into dermatology residency curricula: a prospective program initiative. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 May;86(5):1119-1120. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.04.018. Epub 2021 Apr 16. PMID: 33872717.

Kang BY, Ibrahim SA, Shokeen D, et al. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: protocol for development of a core outcome set for clinical trials. Arch Dermatol Res. 2022 May;314(4):357-361. doi: 10.1007/s00403-021-02239-6. Epub 2021 May 21. PMID: 34019133.

Shango KH, Abdole FA, Gonzalez SM, et al. Medical student confidence in diagnosis of dermatologic diseases in skin of color. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2022 Apr 23;15:745-750. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S357743. PMID: 35497688; PMCID: PMC9045593.

Syder NC, McKenzie S, Omar D, Brown-Korsah JB, Taylor SC, Elbuluk N. Gaps in medical education curricula on skin of color in medical school, residency, and beyond. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr 4:S0190-9622(22)00545-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.03.053. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35390429.

Wilson B, Sun M, Chennareddy S, et al. An analysis of skin of color publications in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology from 2018 to 2020. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022 Apr 1;21(4):441-442. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6286. PMID: 35389580.

Akoh CC, Shankar S, Strachan DD, Latkowski JM. Diversifying the dermatology workforce: physician characteristics vary by race/ethnicity. J Natl Med Assoc. 2022 Mar 22:S0027-9684(22)00047-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2022.02.011. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35337662.

Amuzie AU, Jia JL, Taylor SC, Lester JC. Skin-of-color article representation in dermatology literature 2009-2019: higher citation counts and opportunities for inclusion. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr;86(4):932-933. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.063. Epub 2021 Mar 24. PMID: 33771597.

Buonsenso D, Liu JF, Shanmugavadivel D, Davis T, Roland D. Impact of diversity in training resources on self-confidence in diagnosing skin conditions across a range of skin tones: an international survey. Front Pediatr. 2022 Feb 25;10:837552. doi: 10.3389/fped.2022.837552. PMID: 35281251; PMCID: PMC8916608.

Errichetti E, Ankad BS, Jha AK, et al. International Dermoscopy Society criteria for non-neoplastic dermatoses (general dermatology): validation for skin of color through a Delphi expert consensus. Int J Dermatol. 2022 Apr;61(4):461-471. doi: 10.1111/ijd.15729. Epub 2021 Jul 2. PMID: 34216025.

Harp T, Militello M, McCarver V, et al. Further analysis of skin of color representation in dermatology textbooks used by residents. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar 23:S0190-9622(22)00521-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.02.069. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35339587.

Islam N, Korman AM. Cross-sectional evaluation of Spanish-language resources on websites of US dermatology organizations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar 1:S0190-9622(22)00359-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.02.045. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35245566.

Kluger N, Salava A. Paucity of skin of colour in Finnish textbooks. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2022 Mar 19. doi: 10.1111/jdv.18092. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35305046.

Okeke CAV, Khanna R, Okoye GA, Byrd AS. Assessment of the generalizability of hidradenitis suppurativa microbiome studies: the minimal inclusion of racial and ethnic populations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr;86(4):e159-e161. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.10.042. Epub 2021 Oct 29. PMID: 34757150.

Onyekaba G, Taiwò Née Ademide Adelekun D, Lipoff JB. Skin of color representation in dermatology must be intentionally rectified. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar 23:S0190-9622(22)00522-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.03.032. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35339590.

Pan CX, Nambudiri VE. International medical graduate dermatologists in rural and medically underserved areas: a national cross-sectional analysis. Arch Dermatol Res. 2022 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02332-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35212769.

Pan CX, Yang K, Nambudiri VE. Assessment of black, indigenous, and people of color representation in dermatology clinical practice guidelines. Br J Dermatol. 2022 Mar 29. doi: 10.1111/bjd.21273. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35349171.

Rambhia PH, Yan BY, Barilla S, Sharon VR. Racial and ethnic diversity in clinical trials of laser treatments for scars. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar 5:S0190-9622(22)00370-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.02.055. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35259452.

Rehman R, Azam M, Osto M, et al. Gender and ethnic representation of incoming dermatopathology fellows: a 10-year analysis. Am J Dermatopathol. 2022 Mar 1;44(3):234-235. doi: 10.1097/DAD.0000000000002129. PMID: 34999599.

Falotico JM, Lipner SR. Few skin of color images in Google image searches of nail conditions. Int J Dermatol. 2022 Feb 4. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16121. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35119690.

Gronbeck C, Feng PW, Feng H. Assessment of dermatologist-patient race and ethnicity concordance in the Medicare population. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar;86(3):651-653. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.02.022. Epub 2021 Feb 16. PMID: 33600913.

Kamal K, Imadojemu S, Charrow A. Why diversity in dermatology clinical trials should no longer be optional: dismantling structural racism in dermatology. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Feb 23. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.5190. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35195659.

Mahmood MN. Diversity in dermatology: international medical graduates and their role in the diversity of a specialty. Clin Dermatol. 2022 Feb 16:S0738-081X(22)00029-3. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2022.02.014. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35182709.

Rice X, Uzoma B, Hoyer P. Addressing diversity in dermatology: implementation of formalized-allyship. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb 23:S0190-9622(22)00346-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.12.069. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35218857.

Wu AG, Lipner SR. Multipronged initiatives for addressing disparities in representation in dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb 23:S0190-9622(22)00347-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.02.034. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35218855.

Chang MJ, Lipner SR. Altmetric analysis of skin of color articles: a cross-sectional study. J Cutan Med Surg. 2022 Jan-Feb;26(1):31-32. doi: 10.1177/12034754211045387. Epub 2021 Sep 20. PMID: 34543140.

Jagun O, Banerjee P, Thompson D, Taylor M. The Skin of Colour Training Day UK: training the medical workforce in ethnic dermatology. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Feb;47(2):245-246. doi: 10.1111/ced.14800. Epub 2021 Jul 6. PMID: 34115898.

Lui H, Ahad T, Kalia S. The use and misuse of Fitzpatrick’s skin types. J Cutan Med Surg. 2022 Jan-Feb;26(1):15-16. doi: 10.1177/12034754211061074. PMID: 34996327.

Okeke CAV, Perry JD, Simmonds FC, Erskine Ab, et al. Clinical trials and skin of color: the example of hidradenitis suppurativa. Dermatology. 2022;238(1):180-184. doi: 10.1159/000516467. Epub 2021 Jun 9. PMID: 34107480.

Onasanya J, Liu C. Dermatology education in skin of colour: where we are and where do we go? Can Med Educ J. 2021 Dec 29;12(6):124-125. doi: 10.36834/cmej.73112. PMID: 35003445; PMCID: PMC8740263.

Slaught C, Madu P, Chang AY, Williams VL, Kebaetse MB, Nkomazana O, Molefe-Baikai OJ, Bekele NA, Omech B, Kellman PJ, Krasne S, Kovarik CL. Novel education modules addressing the underrepresentation of skin of color in dermatology training. J Cutan Med Surg. 2022 Jan-Feb;26(1):17-24. doi: 10.1177/12034754211035093. Epub 2021 Aug 2. PMID: 34340596; PMCID: PMC8742749.

Sun M, Wilson BN, Zhou RZ, Murrell DF, Murase JE. Evaluation of skin of color content in Skin Research and Technology. Skin Res Technol. 2022 Mar;28(2):355-356. doi: 10.1111/srt.13105. Epub 2022 Jan 19. PMID: 35048425.

Wilson BN, Sun M, Shah R, Murrell DF, Murase JE. Purposeful inclusion of skin of colour in published literature for improved dermatology education: a call to action. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Feb;47(2):409-410. doi: 10.1111/ced.14821. Epub 2021 Aug 10. PMID: 34189766.

Falotico JM, Lipner SR. Lack of skin of color images of nail conditions in dermatology textbooks. Int J Dermatol. 2021 Dec 5. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16028. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34865217.

Yousuf Y, Yu JC. Improving representation of skin of color in a medical school preclerkship dermatology curriculum. Med Sci Educ. 2021 Nov 30;32(1):27-30. doi: 10.1007/s40670-021-01473-x. PMID: 34868730; PMCID: PMC8631695.

Babool S, Bhai SF, Sanderson C, Salter A, Christopher-Stine L. Racial disparities in skin tone representation of dermatomyositis rashes: a systematic review. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021 Oct 29:keab809. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keab809. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34718435.

Bae C, Cheng M, Kraus CN, Desai S. Representation of skin of color in rheumatology educational resources. J Rheumatol. 2021 Nov 1:jrheum.210626. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.210626. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34725180.

Daneshjou R, Smith MP, Sun MD, Rotemberg V, Zou J. Lack of transparency and potential bias in artificial intelligence data sets and algorithms: a scoping review. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Nov 1;157(11):1362-1369. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.3129. PMID: 34550305.

Ibraheim MK, Gupta R, Dao H, Patel A, Koshelev M. Evaluating skin of color education in dermatology residency programs: data from a national survey. Clin Dermatol. 2021 Nov 24:S0738-081X(21)00257-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2021.11.015. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34838657.

Lee MS, Linggonegoro DW, Huang JT, Nambudiri VE. Expanding the palette of pediatric playthings: a call to action for pediatric dermatologists. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Nov 1. doi: 10.1111/pde.14848. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34725858.

Patel S, Watchmaker JD, Dover JS. Darker skin types are under-represented in sunscreen clinical trials: results of a literature review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Nov 15:S0190-9622(21)02827-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.11.009. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34793928.

Kamath P, Sundaram N, Morillo-Hernandez C, Barry F, James AJ. Visual racism in internet searches and dermatology textbooks. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Nov;85(5):1348-1349. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.10.072. Epub 2020 Oct 29. PMID: 33130182.

Kim YH, Kobic A, Vidal NY. Distribution of race and Fitzpatrick skin types in datasets for deep learning in dermatology: a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Oct 19:S0190-9622(21)02649-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.10.010. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34678235.

Ding J, Haq AF, Joseph M, Khosa F. Disparities in pediatric clinical trials for acne vulgaris: a cross-sectional study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Oct 19:S0190-9622(21)02654-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.10.013. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34678233.

Lopez S, Lourido JO, Lim HW, Ferguson NN, Pandya AG, Vasquez R. The call to action to increase racial and ethnic diversity in dermatology: a retrospective, cross-sectional study to monitor progress. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar;86(3):e121-e123. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.10.011. Epub 2021 Oct 20. PMID: 34678231.

Mosca M, Hong J, Hadeler E, Hakimi M, Brownstone N, Bhutani T, Liao W. A cross-sectional study of ethnoracial representation in pediatric plaque psoriasis clinical trials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb;86(2):442-444. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.09.060. Epub 2021 Oct 5. PMID: 34624415.

Elyas A, Dalgard F, Svensson Å. Dermatology textbooks in Scandinavia should prepare medical students for ethnic diversity. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021 Oct;35(10):e697-e698. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17418. Epub 2021 Jun 13. PMID: 34051013.

Gregersen DM, Elsner P. Ethnic diversity in German dermatology textbooks: Does it exist and is it important? A mini review. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2021 Sep 29. doi: 10.1111/ddg.14543. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34585822.

Burgin S, Dlova NC, Ingram JR, Parish LC, Goldsmith LA. The essential role of dermatology publications in enhancing professional diversity, equity and inclusion. Br J Dermatol. 2021;185(3):473-474. doi:10.1111/bjd.20473

Kannuthurai V, Murray J, Chen L, Baker EA, Zickuhr L. Health care practitioners’ confidence assessing lupus-related rashes in patients of color. Lupus. 2021 Sep 16:9612033211045284. doi: 10.1177/09612033211045284. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34528847.

Shanmugavadivel D, Buonsenso D, Chantiluke K, Arora M. Importance and impact of diversity in paediatric medical education. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2021 Sep 6:edpract-2020-320796. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-320796. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34489326.

Colon A, Rubio XB, Gillihan R, Montañez-Wiscovich M, Motaparthi K. Diversity in dermatology: dermatology resident exposure to skin of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Sep 1;20(9):1005-1007. doi: 10.36849/jdd.6029. PMID: 34491019.

Alvarado SM, Flessland P, Grant-Kels JM, McFarlane M, Feng H. Practical strategies for improving clinical photography of dark skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Jan;86(1):e21-e23. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.09.001. Epub 2021 Sep 14. PMID: 34530065.

Alvarado SM, Grant-Kels JM, Elston D, Feng H. Diversity and dermatology journals. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Sep 13:S0190-9622(21)02435-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.08.062. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34530067.

Oh Y, Markova A, Noor SJ, Rotemberg V. Standardized clinical photography considerations in patients across skin tones. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Sep 26. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20766. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34564851.

Akhtar S, Chen V, Benjamin L, Mayoral F. Photodocumentation in skin of color. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 31. doi: 10.1111/pde.14788. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34463371.

Okoji UK, Lipoff JB. Demographics of US dermatology residents interested in skin of color: an analysis of website profiles. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Sep;85(3):786-788. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.09.092. Epub 2020 Oct 8. PMID: 33039484.

Militello M, Szeto MD, Presley CL, Pulsipher KJ, Rundle CW, Ward KH, Hoover E, Dellavalle RP. A quantitative analysis of research publications focused on skin of color: representation in academic dermatology journals. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Sep;85(3):e189-e192. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.04.053. Epub 2021 Apr 24. PMID: 33905787.

Lolic M, Araojo R, Okeke M, Temple R. U.S. racial and ethnic participation in global clinical trials by therapeutic areas. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2021 Sep 20. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.13532. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34544200.

Chang MJ, Lipner SR. Altmetric analysis of skin of color articles: a cross-sectional study. J Cutan Med Surg. 2021 Sep 20:12034754211045387. doi: 10.1177/12034754211045387. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34543140.

Ogbalidet S, Finstad A, Boshra M, Mahmood F, Lanoe V, Mardiros L, Arroyo I, Bahubeshi A, Colantonio S. Survey of skin of colour dermatology teaching in medical schools across Canada. J Cutan Med Surg. 2021 Sep 9:12034754211045377. doi: 10.1177/12034754211045377. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34496643.

Silverberg NB, Jacob S, Heath C, Gonzalez M, Yu J, Luu M, Benjamin L, Kenner-Bell B, Oboite M, Castelo-Soccio L, Stein SL. Training in pediatric skin of color: suggested curricular guidelines of the pediatric dermatology research alliance special interest group in pediatric skin of color. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 21. doi: 10.1111/pde.14754. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34418155.

Hereford B, Kim Y, Zaenglein AL, Hollins LC. Photographic representation of skin tones in three dermatology journals. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 21. doi: 10.1111/pde.14766. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34418149.

Zhou AG, Hafler J, Tomayko MM. Modifying a comprehensive preclinical dermatology curriculum to better teach dermatology in skin of all colors: Response to “Improving cultural competency and practicing cultural humility in dermatologic training: Skin of color education and board certifi J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Aug 8:S0190-9622(21)02285-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.898. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34375668.

Barve A, Shah M, Sheth P. Skin of color images in pediatric dermatology textbooks. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 16. doi: 10.1111/pde.14760. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34402099.

Nusbaum KB, Adame S, Shipp D, Trinidad JC. Skin of color in dermatology: analysis of representation in dermatologic journals. Int J Dermatol. 2021 Aug 19. doi: 10.1111/ijd.15828. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34411282.

Costello CM, Harvey JA, Besch-Stokes JG, Bhullar P, Lim ES, Kunze KL, Tollefson MM, Tolaymat LM, Ochoa SA. The role of race and ethnicity in the dermatology applicant match process. J Natl Med Assoc. 2021 Aug 2:S0027-9684(21)00126-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2021.07.005. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34353623.

Ha MV, Mazmudar RS, Carroll BT. Internet searches for Black dermatologists during the social justice movement of 2020. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 19:S0190-9622(21)02147-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.019. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34293389.

Guo LN, Lee MS, Kassamali B, Mita C, Nambudiri VE. Bias in, bias out: underreporting and underrepresentation of diverse skin types in machine learning research for skin cancer detection – a scoping review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 10:S0190-9622(21)02086-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.884. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34252465.

Mhlaba JM, Pontes DS, Patterson SS, Kundu RV. Evaluation of a skin of color curriculum for dermatology residents. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):786-789. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6193. PMID: 34232004.

Guda VA, Paek SY. Skin of color representation in commonly utilized medical student dermatology resources. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):799. doi: 10.36849/JDD.5726. PMID: 34231988.

Mamo A, Szeto MD, Rietcheck H, Yu S, Burrows K, Olayinka JT, Anand P, Dellavalle RP, Dunnick CA. Evaluating medical student assessment of common dermatologic conditions across Fitzpatrick phototypes and skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1:S0190-9622(21)02015-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.868. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34217806.

Ferguson JE, Vetos D, Ho BV, Aziz M, Lee WM, Mohyuddin GR, Prouty M. Trends in diversity of participants in dermatology clinical trials over time: a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jun 6:S0190-9622(21)01090-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.05.052. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34090958.

Yu Z, Jia JL, Veerabagu SA, Burkemper NM, Friedman AJ, Rosmarin D, Huang JT, Murina AT, Nord KM. Supporting underrepresented in medicine (UIM) and non-UIM trainees applying into dermatology: a qualitative analysis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):795-797. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6043. PMID: 34231995.

Bellicoso E, Quick SO, Ayoo KO, Beach RA, Joseph M, Dahlke E. Diversity in dermatology? An assessment of undergraduate medical education. J Cutan Med Surg. 2021 Apr 13:12034754211007430. doi: 10.1177/12034754211007430. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33849302.

Amuzie AU, Jia JL, Taylor SC, Lester JC. Skin of color article representation in dermatology literature 2009-2019: Higher citation counts and opportunities for inclusion. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Mar 23:S0190-9622(21)00617-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.063. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33771597.

Kurtti A, Austin E, Jagdeo J. Representation of skin color in dermatology-related Google image searches. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar;86(3):705-708. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.036. Epub 2021 Mar 17. PMID: 33744357.

Kaundinya T, Kundu RV. Improving cultural competency and practicing cultural humility in dermatologic training: Skin of color education and board certification. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Mar 23:S0190-9622(21)00614-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.060. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33771598.

Perlman KL, Williams NM, Egbeto IA, Gao DX, Siddiquee N, Park JH. Skin of color lacks representation in medical student resources: A cross-sectional study. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Jan 8;7(2):195-196. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2020.12.018. PMID: 33937492; PMCID: PMC8072497.

Wu AG, Lipner SR. National trends in gender and ethnicity in dermatology training: 2006 to 2018. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jan 28:S0190-9622(21)00236-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.01.077. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33515628.

Chang MJ, Lipner SR. Analysis of skin color on the American Academy of Dermatology public education website. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020 Dec 1;19(12):1236-1237. doi: 10.36849/JDD.2020.5545. PMID: 33346528.

Reilley-Luther J, Cline A, Zimmerly A, Azinge S, Moy J. Representation of Fitzpatrick skin type in dermatology textbooks compared with national percentiles. Dermatol Online J. 2020 Dec 15;26(12):13030/qt91h8k9zc. PMID: 33423414.

Wells TM, Rundle CW, Szeto MD, Presley C, Dellavalle RP. An analysis of skin of color dermatology related content on Instagram. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020 Jul 1;19(7):746-754. doi: 10.36849/JDD.2020.5142. PMID: 32722911.

Cline A, Winter RP, Kourosh S, Taylor SC, Stout M, Callender V, McMichael AJ. Multiethnic training in residency: A survey of dermatology residents. Cutis. 2020 Jun;105(6):310-313. PMID: 32716988.

Adelekun A, Onyekaba G, Lipoff JB. Skin color in dermatology textbooks: An updated evaluation and analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jan;84(1):194-196. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.04.084. Epub 2020 Apr 23. PMID: 32335181.

Alvarado SM, Feng H. Representation of dark skin images of common dermatologic conditions in educational resources: a cross-sectional analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Jun 18:S0190-9622(20)31138-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.06.041. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32565205.

Lester JC, Jia JL, Zhang L, Okoye GA, Linos E. Absence of images of skin of colour in publications of COVID-19 skin manifestations. Br J Dermatol. 2020 Sep;183(3):593-595. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19258. Epub 2020 Jul 16. PMID: 32471009; PMCID: PMC7301030.

Xierali IM, Nivet MA, Pandya AG. US dermatology department faculty diversity trends by sex and underrepresented-in-medicine status, 1970 to 2018. JAMA Dermatol. 2020 Mar 1;156(3):280-287. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.4297. PMID: 31913403; PMCID: PMC6990830.

Lester JC, Taylor SC, Chren MM. Under-representation of skin of colour in dermatology images: not just an educational issue. Br J Dermatol. 2019 Jun;180(6):1521-1522. doi: 10.1111/bjd.17608. PMID: 31157429.

Soliman YS, Rzepecki AK, Guzman AK, Williams RF, Cohen SR, Ciocon D, Halverstam C. Understanding Perceived Barriers of Minority Medical Students Pursuing a Career in Dermatology. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 Feb 1;155(2):252-254. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.4813. PMID: 30624570; PMCID: PMC6439537.

Louie P, Wilkes R. Representations of race and skin tone in medical textbook imagery. Soc Sci Med. 2018 Apr;202:38-42. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.02.023. Epub 2018 Feb 23. PMID: 29501717.

Van Voorhees AS, Enos CW. Diversity in Dermatology Residency Programs. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2017 Oct;18(2):S46-S49. doi: 10.1016/j.jisp.2017.07.001. PMID: 28941493.

Ebede T, Papier A. Disparities in dermatology educational resources. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Oct;55(4):687-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2005.10.068. PMID: 17010750.

Skin of Color Dermatology

Bryan A, Samant H, Asarkar A, et al. Cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19-positive African American patients. Ochsner J. 2022 Spring;22(1):22-25. doi: 10.31486/toj.21.0057. PMID: 35355641; PMCID: PMC8929220.

Desai S, Manry S, Makino E, Mehta R. Assessment of circadian-based antioxidants plus a comprehensive brightener in skin of color patients with hyperpigmentation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022 Apr 1;21(4):376-380. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6687. PMID: 35389588.

Enechukwu NA, Ogunbiyi AO. A review of indigenous therapies for hair and scalp disorders in Nigeria. Dermatol Ther. 2022 Apr 11:e15505. doi: 10.1111/dth.15505. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35411563.

Kim DH, Lee JY, Cho SI, Jo SJ. Risks of comorbidities in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis vs patients with psoriasis vulgaris or pompholyx in Korea. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Apr 27. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.1081. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35476054.

Lee JS, Kim S, Kim DH, et al. Clinical features and natural course of pediatric longitudinal melanonychia: a retrospective cohort study in Korea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr 5:S0190-9622(22)00551-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.03.058. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35395360.

Morquette AJ, Waples ER, Heath CR. The importance of cosmetically elegant sunscreen in skin of color populations. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2022 Apr;21(4):1337-1338. doi: 10.1111/jocd.14409. PMID: 35373536.

Okeke CAV, Williams JP, Iwuala CU, et al. What’s race got to do with it? CRP levels in immune mediated skin diseases: considerations for hidradenitis suppurativa. Front Immunol. 2022 Mar 29;13:847050. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.847050. PMID: 35432388; PMCID: PMC9009384.

Raju SP, Sachdev M, Khunger N, Madnani N. Mask acne in skin of color: a significant dermatological condition amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2022 Apr;15(4):44-48. PMID: 35465038; PMCID: PMC9017666.

Sitaniya S, Subramani D, Jadhav A, et al. Quality-of-life of people with keloids and its correlation with clinical severity and demographic profiles. Wound Repair Regen. 2022 Apr 7. doi: 10.1111/wrr.13015. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35388938.

Sutaria N, Alphonse MP, Marani M, et al. Cluster analysis of circulating plasma biomarkers in prurigo nodularis reveals a distinct systemic inflammatory signature in African Americans. J Invest Dermatol. 2022 May;142(5):1300-1308.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2021.10.011. Epub 2021 Oct 27. PMID: 34717952; PMCID: PMC9038640.

Anvery N, Christensen RE, Dirr MA. Management of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in skin of color: a short review. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2022 Mar 15. doi: 10.1111/jocd.14916. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35289059.

Aoki V, Oliveira M, Wegzyn C, Desai SR, Jewell S, Ladizinski B, Simpson EL. Assessment and monitoring challenges among patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis across Fitzpatrick skin types: a photographic review and case series. Dermatitis. 2022 Mar 22. doi: 10.1097/DER.0000000000000864. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35318974.

Chukwudi Nwabudike L. Exploring and expanding frontiers in dermatology – indigenous African dermatology. Dermatol Ther. 2022 Mar 8:e15431. doi: 10.1111/dth.15431. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35261132.

Hollins LC, Butt M, Hong J, Taylor SC. Research in brief: survey of hair care practices in various ethnic and racial pediatric populations. Pediatr Dermatol. 2022 Mar 3. doi: 10.1111/pde.14958. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35243692.

Kolitz E, Lopes FCPS, Arffa M, et al. UV exposure and the risk of keratinocyte carcinoma in skin of color: a systematic review. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Mar 23. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.0263. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35319719.

Morgado-Carrasco D, Piquero-Casals J, Granger C, et al. Melasma: the need for tailored photoprotection to improve clinical outcomes. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2022 Mar 1. doi: 10.1111/phpp.12783. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35229368.

Morrone A, Dell’Anna ML, Cristaudo A, et al. Psoriasis in Tigray, Ethiopia: focusing on available treatments. Dermatol Ther. 2022 Mar;35(3):e14718. doi: 10.1111/dth.14718. Epub 2021 Jan 10. PMID: 33368850.

Niu Z, Riley M, Stapleton JL, et al. Sunburns and sun protection behaviors among male Hispanic outdoor day laborers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Feb 22;19(5):2524. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19052524. PMID: 35270218; PMCID: PMC8909209.

Yildirim AM, Yousaf A, Fang W, Kolodney MS. A cross sectional study of male balding patterns in people of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar 11:S0190-9622(22)00433-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.03.016. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35288202.

Collins MS, Ali S, Wiss IP, Senna MM. Increased risk of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Black patients with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb 14:S0190-9622(22)00272-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.02.018. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35176399.

Farshchian M, Grant-Kels JM. Ethics of documenting patient’s race and ethnicity in dermatology clinical notes and presentations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Feb 18:S0190-9622(22)00274-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.02.020. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35189255.

Foreman RM, Zappas M, Lavell J. Dermatology in skin of color. Nurse Pract. 2022 Feb 1;47(2):10-14. doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000798256.17155.86. PMID: 35044346.

Grullon K, Ashi SA, Shea CR, Ruiz de Luzuriaga AM, Stein SL, Rosenblatt AE. Follicular keratosis of the face in pediatric patients of color. Pediatr Dermatol. 2022 Feb 17. doi: 10.1111/pde.14946. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35178760.

Obi E. Surgical considerations in skin of colour. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Feb 20. doi: 10.1111/ced.15147. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35187688.

Quiñonez RL, Agbai ON, Burgess CM, Taylor SC. An update on cosmetic procedures in people of color. Part 1: scientific background, assessment, pre-procedure preparation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr;86(4):715-725. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.081. Epub 2022 Feb 18. PMID: 35189254.

Quiñonez RL, Agbai ON, Burgess CM, Taylor SC. An update on cosmetic procedures in people of color. Part 2: neuromodulators, soft tissue augmentation, chemexfoliating agents, and laser hair reduction. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr;86(4):729-739. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.080. Epub 2022 Feb 18. PMID: 35189253.

Chang M, Lipner S. Disparities in telemedicine satisfaction among older and non-white dermatology patients: a cross-sectional study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022 Feb 1;21(2):210-214. doi: 10.36849/jdd.6410. PMID: 35133116.

Agim NG, Morquette AJ, Heath CR. Normal skin findings and cultural practices in pediatric patients with skin of color. Dermatol Clin. 2022 Jan;40(1):73-81. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2021.09.001. PMID: 34799037.

Barton M, Boos MD. Towards a more inclusive environment in the dermatology clinic: an introduction to using thoughtful language in the practice of dermatology. Dermatol Clin. 2022 Jan;40(1):103-108. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2021.09.008. Epub 2021 Oct 22. PMID: 34799031.

Català A, Muñoz-Santos C, Galván-Casas C, et al. Cutaneous reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: a cross-sectional Spanish nationwide study of 405 cases. Br J Dermatol. 2022 Jan;186(1):142-152. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20639. Epub 2021 Sep 21. PMID: 34254291; PMCID: PMC8444756.

Deshpande A. Efficacy and safety of intense pulsed light therapy for unwanted facial hair: a retrospective analysis in skin of color. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2022 Jan 17:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14764172.2021.2009875. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35038966.

Ferguson JE, Seger EW, White J, McMichael A. Racial/ethnic differences in treatment efficacy and safety for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: a systematic review. Arch Dermatol Res. 2022 Jan 20. doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02324-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35050396.

Geczik AM, Falk RT, Xu X, et al. Relation of circulating estrogens with hair relaxer and skin lightener use among postmenopausal women in Ghana. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2022 Jan 6. doi: 10.1038/s41370-021-00407-4. Epub ahead of print. Erratum in: J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2022 Jan 29;: PMID: 34992224.

Iwuala C, Taylor SC. Structural and functional differences in skin of colour. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Feb;47(2):247-250. doi: 10.1111/ced.14892. Epub 2021 Oct 19. PMID: 34388277.

Jones VA, Folarin S, França K. Skin of color and psychodermatology: a quantitative analysis of common cutaneous conditions and psychocutaneous disorders. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2022 Jan 24. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17960. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35073419.

Okeke CAV, Malik AM, Atwater AR, Powell DL, Czajkowski G, Castanedo-Tardan MP, Montanez-Wiscovich M, Wu PA; Members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Healthcare Disparities Committee. American Contact Dermatitis Society position statement: dermatitis and skin of color. Dermatitis. 2022 Jan-Feb 01;33(1):3-9. doi: 10.1097/DER.0000000000000840. PMID: 35029346.

Okoji UK, Agim NG, Heath CR. Features of common skin disorders in pediatric patients with skin of color. Dermatol Clin. 2022 Jan;40(1):83-93. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2021.09.002. Epub 2021 Oct 22. PMID: 34799038.

Rao R, McDonald JA, Barrett ES, et al. Associations of hair dye and relaxer use with breast tumor clinicopathologic features: findings from the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Environ Res. 2022 Jan;203:111863. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111863. Epub 2021 Aug 11. PMID: 34390715; PMCID: PMC8616798.

Sacksner JP, Kaundinya T, Daftary K, Jackson KL, Kundu RV. Skin tone preferences and their influence on skin care behaviors. Arch Dermatol Res. 2022 Jan 5. doi: 10.1007/s00403-021-02320-0. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34985574.

Verschoore M, Dlova N. Advances in dermatology in sub-Saharan Africa in the past 20?years from workshops to the birth of the African Society of Dermatology and Venereology. Int J Dermatol. 2022 Jan 26. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16073. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35080012.

Walker CJ, Pathoulas JT, Flanagan KE, Wiss IP, Senna MM. Allergenic characterization of best-selling hair products marketed to Black women. Dermatitis. 2022 Jan-Feb 01;33(1):e7-e9. doi: 10.1097/DER.0000000000000829. PMID: 35029355.

Wilson B, Sun M, Revankar R, Murrell D, Murase J. Three-year assessment of diversity and skin of color content in dermatitis. Dermatitis. 2022 Jan-Feb 01;33(1):e6-e7. doi: 10.1097/DER.0000000000000813. PMID: 35029354.

Xie F, Sominidi-Damodaran S, Cantwell HM, Wyles SP, Wieland CN, Comfere NI, Davis DMR, Lehman JS. Pemphigoid gestationis and polymorphic eruption of pregnancy in skin of color. Int J Dermatol. 2022 Jan 22. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16048. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35064677.

Yoo J. Differential diagnosis and management of hyperpigmentation. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Feb;47(2):251-258. doi: 10.1111/ced.14747. Epub 2021 Jul 6. PMID: 33999447.

Sharma D, Dalia Y, Patel TS. Ethnic equity implications in the management of pseudofolliculitis barbae. J Am Board Fam Med. 2022 Jan-Feb;35(1):173-174. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2022.01.210168. PMID: 35039424.

Tsai J, Chien AL. Photoprotection for skin of color. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2022 Mar;23(2):195-205. doi: 10.1007/s40257-021-00670-z. Epub 2022 Jan 19. PMID: 35044638; PMCID: PMC8766623.

Liu Y, Spitz KE, Nguyen HP. Skin lightening practices, awareness of social drivers, and the role of regulation in between. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Dec;85(6):e415-e416. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.08.027. Epub 2021 Aug 23. PMID: 34437987.

Maninder K, Richa R, Dinesh AP, Suman P. Factors affecting the outcome of fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing of various types of scars in skin of color. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2021 Dec 21. doi: 10.1111/jocd.14698. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34932873.

McDonald KA, Shelley AJ, Maliyar K, Abdalla T, Beach RA, Beecker J. Hair pull test: a clinical update for patients with Asian- and Afro-textured hair. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Dec;85(6):1599-1601. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.11.057. Epub 2020 Dec 14. PMID: 33326824.

Rigel D, Lim HW, Draelos Z, Weber TM, Taylor S. Photoprotection for all: current gaps and opportunities. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar;86(3S):S18-S26. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.12.023. Epub 2021 Dec 20. PMID: 34942298.

Rigel DS, Taylor SC, Lim HW, Alexis AF, Armstrong AW, Chiesa Fuxench ZC, Draelos ZD, Hamzavi IH. Photoprotection for skin of all color: consensus and clinical guidance from an expert panel. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar;86(3S):S1-S8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.12.019. Epub 2021 Dec 20. PMID: 34942296.

Taylor SC, Alexis AF, Armstrong AW, Chiesa Fuxench ZC, Lim HW. Misconceptions of photoprotection in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Mar;86(3S):S9-S17. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.12.020. Epub 2021 Dec 21. PMID: 34942293.

Callender VD, Baldwin H, Cook-Bolden FE, Alexis AF, Stein Gold L, Guenin E. Effects of topical retinoids on acne and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in patients with skin of color: a clinical review and implications for practice. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2022 Jan;23(1):69-81. doi: 10.1007/s40257-021-00643-2. Epub 2021 Nov 9. PMID: 34751927.

Chang J, Wang Y, Sun D, Zhang L, Man MQ, Tu Y, Jiang X, He L, Gu H. Characterization of rosacea in Chinese: an analysis of 254 cases. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2021 Nov;20(11):3666-3671. doi: 10.1111/jocd.14039. Epub 2021 Mar 11. PMID: 33655687.

Gandhi K, Ezzedine K, Anastassopoulos KP, Patel R, Sikirica V, Daniel SR, Napatalung L, Yamaguchi Y, Baik R, Pandya AG. Prevalence of vitiligo among adults in the United States. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Jan 1;158(1):43-50. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.4724. PMID: 34787670; PMCID: PMC8600454.

Guckian J, Ingram JR, Rajan N, Linos E. Dermatology is finally talking about race. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Nov;185(5):875-876. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20599. PMID: 34743327.

Ho BVK, Ferguson J, Reme B, Akinwuntan J, Seger EW, Rajpara A. Racial and ethnic makeup of a dermatology community health center is reflective of the underlying general population in Kansas City. JAAD Int. 2021 Nov 6;6:1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jdin.2021.10.001. PMID: 34806051; PMCID: PMC8586798.

Mitchell KN, Tay YK, Heath CR, Silverberg NB. Review article: emerging issues in pediatric skin of color, Part 2. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Oct 27. doi: 10.1111/pde.14774. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34708446.

Akuffo-Addo E, Nicholas MN, Joseph M. COVID-19 skin manifestations in skin of colour. J Cutan Med Surg. 2022 Mar-Apr;26(2):189-197. doi: 10.1177/12034754211053310. Epub 2021 Oct 19. PMID: 34663122; PMCID: PMC8950713.

Mitchell KN, Tay YK, Heath CR, Trachtman R, Silverberg NB. Review article: emerging issues in pediatric skin of color, part 1. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Oct 18. doi: 10.1111/pde.14775. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34664330.

Pereira MP, Zeidler C, Ständer S. Clinical characteristics of chronic nodular prurigo are independent of Fitzpatrick skin type. A European prospective cross-sectional study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021 Oct 17. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17756. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34661933.

Sommerlad M. Skin lightening causes and complications. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Feb;47(2):264-270. doi: 10.1111/ced.14972. Epub 2021 Dec 17. PMID: 34637158.

Nriagu BN, Sanders VR, Bercovitch L, Snyder K, Cross EA, Treat JR, Sheppard SE. Misdiagnosis of capillary malformations in darker skin phototypes. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Sep 28. doi: 10.1111/pde.14787. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34585435.

Lecaros C, Dunstan J, Villena F, Ashcroft DM, Parisi R, Griffiths CEM, Härtel S, Maul JT, De la Cruz C. The incidence of psoriasis in Chile: an analysis of the National Waiting List Repository. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021 Oct;46(7):1262-1269. doi: 10.1111/ced.14713. Epub 2021 Jun 26. PMID: 33914930.

Butt S, Butt H, Gnanappiragasam D. Unintentional consequences of artificial intelligence in dermatology for patients with skin of colour. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021 Oct;46(7):1333-1334. doi: 10.1111/ced.14726. Epub 2021 May 31. PMID: 33969523.

Sutaria N, Parthasarathy V, Roh YS, Choi J, Bordeaux ZA, Trinh P, Le TK, Semenov YR, Kwatra SG. Itch in skin of colour: a multicentre cross-sectional study. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Sep;185(3):652-654. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20403. Epub 2021 Jun 6. PMID: 33893648.

East-Innis ADC, Chung-Stanley MM, McNish AJS, Fitz-Henley MSA. The spectrum of skin diseases seen in a Jamaican tertiary academic medical center. JAAD Int. 2021 Jul 30;4:59-64. doi: 10.1016/j.jdin.2021.06.003. PMID: 34409394; PMCID: PMC8361907.

Bax CE, Clark AK, Oboite M, Treat JR. A case of disseminated Lyme disease in a child with skin of color. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Sep 13. doi: 10.1111/pde.14770. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34515362.

Foschi CM, Tam I, Schalock PC, Yu J. Patch testing results in skin of color: a retrospective review from the Massachusetts General Hospital Contact Dermatitis Clinic. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Sep 18:S0190-9622(21)02497-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.09.022. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34547356.

Louis LM, Kavi LK, Boyle M, Pool W, Bhandari D, De Jesús VR, Thomas S, Pollack AZ, Sun A, McLean S, Rule AM, Quirós-Alcalá L. Biomonitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among hairdressers in salons primarily serving women of color: a pilot study. Environ Int. 2021 Sep;154:106655. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106655. Epub 2021 Jun 3. PMID: 34090205; PMCID: PMC8221536.

Ho T, Taylor MT, Marathe KS, Lucky AW, Barbieri JS. Most common pediatric skin conditions managed in outpatient dermatology clinics in the United States stratified by race and ethnicity. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 2. doi: 10.1111/pde.14693. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34339074.

Jones NL, Heath CR. Hair at the intersection of dermatology and anthropology: a conversation on race and relationships. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 3. doi: 10.1111/pde.14721. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34342039.

Khosla NN, Grullon K, Rosenblatt AE. Prevention of racialized medicine in pediatric dermatology: a call to re-examine skin tone typing. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 6. doi: 10.1111/pde.14739. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34355415.

O’Connor C, Gallagher C, Bourke J, Murphy M. Confidence of Irish dermatologists in caring for patients with skin of colour. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2022 Jan;47(1):169-171. doi: 10.1111/ced.14897. Epub 2021 Sep 2. PMID: 34398995.

Davies OMT, Benjamin L, Gupta D, Huang JT, Rehmus W, Siegel DH, Siegel MP. Diversity in pediatric dermatology: a report from the Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance and a call to action. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.1111/pde.14756. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34409651.

Bellet JS. Nail discoloration in pediatric skin of color patients. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Jul 15. doi: 10.1111/pde.14659. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34263476.

Finlay AY, Griffiths TW, Belmo S, Chowdhury MMU. Why we should abandon the misused descriptor “erythema”. Br J Dermatol. 2021 Jul 28. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20660. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34319584.

Alexis AF, Woolery-Lloyd H, Williams K, Andriessen A, Callender VD, Kang S, Rodriquez D, Tan J. Racial/ethnic variations in acne: implications for treatment and skin care recommendations for acne patients with skin of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):716-725. doi: 10.36849/JDD.6169. PMID: 34232006.

Tamazian S, Oboite M, Treat JR. Patch testing in skin of color: A brief report. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Mar 20. doi: 10.1111/pde.14578. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33742499.

Orenstein LAV, Nelson MM, Wolner Z, Laugesen MJ, Wang Z, Patzer RE, Swerlick RA. Differences in outpatient dermatology encounter work relative value units and net payments by patient race, sex, and age. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Feb 17:e205823. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2020.5823. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33595596; PMCID: PMC7890528.

Plante JG, Aleisa AI, Thiers BH. Pityriasis rubra pilaris in skin of color. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Jan 19;7(2):207-208. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.01.010. PMID: 33937496; PMCID: PMC8072512.

Wiznia LE, Wang J, Steuer AB, Elbuluk N. Direct-to-consumer dermatology-related advertising differs in magazines targeted to women of color: A cross-sectional analysis of top-circulating consumer magazines. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Jan 18;7(2):191-194. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.01.009. PMID: 33937491; PMCID: PMC8072494.

Maymone MBC, Laughter M, Pollock S, Khan I, Marques T, Abdat R, Goldberg LJ, Vashi NA. Hair aging in different races and ethnicities. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2021 Jan;14(1):38-44. Epub 2021 Jan 1. PMID: 33584967; PMCID: PMC7869811.

Pollock S, Taylor S, Oyerinde O, Nurmohamed S, Dlova N, Sarkar R, Galadari H, Manela-Azulay M, Chung HS, Handog E, Kourosh AS. The dark side of skin lightening: An international collaboration and review of a public health issue affecting dermatology. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2020 Sep 17;7(2):158-164. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2020.09.006. PMID: 33937483; PMCID: PMC8072511.

McColl M, Boozalis E, Aguh C, Eseonu AC, Okoye GA, Kwatra SG. Pruritus in Black Skin: Unique Molecular Characteristics and Clinical Features. J Natl Med Assoc. 2020 Jul 31:S0027-9684(20)30140-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2020.07.002. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32747312.

Massie JP, Cho DY, Kneib CJ, Sousa JD, Morrison SD, Friedrich JB. A Picture of Modern Medicine: Race and Visual Representation in Medical Literature. J Natl Med Assoc. 2020 Aug 1:S0027-9684(20)30153-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2020.07.013. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32753112.

Montgomery SN, Elbuluk N. A quantitative analysis of research publications focused on the top chief complaints in skin of color patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Aug 12:S0190-9622(20)32421-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.08.031. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32800869.

Douglas A, Onalaja AA, Taylor SC. Hair care products used by women of African descent: review of ingredients. Cutis. 2020 Apr;105(4):183-188. PMID: 32463850.

Barbieri JS, Shin DB, Wang S, Margolis DJ, Takeshita J. Association of race/ethnicity and sex with differences in health care use and treatment for acne. JAMA Dermatol. 2020 Mar 1;156(3):312-319. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.4818. PMID: 32022834; PMCID: PMC7042795.

Teteh D, Ericson M, Monice S, Dawkins-Moultin L, Bahadorani N, Clark P, Mitchell E, Treviño LS, Llanos A, Kittles R, Montgomery S. The Black identity, hair product use, and breast cancer scale. PLoS One. 2019 Dec 4;14(12):e0225305. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225305. PMID: 31800594; PMCID: PMC6892488.

Gorbatenko-Roth K, Prose N, Kundu RV, Patterson S. Assessment of Black patients’ perception of their dermatology care. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 Oct 1;155(10):1129-1134. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.2063. PMID: 31433446; PMCID: PMC6704753.

Raffi J, Suresh R, Agbai O. Clinical recognition and management of alopecia in women of color. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2019 Aug 22;5(5):314-319. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2019.08.005. PMID: 31909150; PMCID: PMC6938875.

Benn EKT, Deshpande R, Dotson-Newman O, Gordon S, Scott M, Amarasiriwardena C, Khan IA, Wang YH, Alexis A, Kaufman B, Moran H, Wen C, Charles CAD, Younger NOM, Mohamed N, Liu B. Skin bleaching among African and Afro-Caribbean women in New York City: Primary findings from a P30 pilot study. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2019 Jun;9(2):355-367. doi: 10.1007/s13555-019-0297-y. Epub 2019 Apr 24. PMID: 31020513; PMCID: PMC6522580.

Heath CR. Hair loss in skin of color patients. Cutis. 2019 Apr;103(4):231-232. PMID: 31116819.

Maymone MBC, Watchmaker JD, Dubiel M, Wirya SA, Shen LY, Vashi NA. Common Skin Disorders in Pediatric Skin of Color. J Pediatr Health Care. 2019 Nov-Dec;33(6):727-737. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2019.04.019. PMID: 31655787.

Alexis AF, Callender VD, Baldwin HE, Desai SR, Rendon MI, Taylor SC. Global epidemiology and clinical spectrum of rosacea, highlighting skin of color: Review and clinical practice experience. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jun;80(6):1722-1729.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.08.049. Epub 2018 Sep 19. PMID: 30240779.

Brunner PM, Guttman-Yassky E. Racial differences in atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019 May;122(5):449-455. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2018.11.015. Epub 2018 Nov 20. PMID: 30465859.

Sarkar R, Ailawadi P, Garg S. Melasma in men: a review of clinical, etiological, and management issues. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2018 Feb;11(2):53-59. Epub 2018 Feb 1. PMID: 29552277; PMCID: PMC5843363.

Fischer AH, Shin DB, Margolis DJ, Takeshita J. Racial and ethnic differences in health care utilization for childhood eczema: an analysis of the 2001-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Dec;77(6):1060-1067. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.08.035. Epub 2017 Sep 28. PMID: 28964540; PMCID: PMC5916760.

Taylor SC, Barbosa V, Burgess C, Heath C, McMichael AJ, Ogunleye T, Callender V. Hair and scalp disorders in adult and pediatric patients with skin of color. Cutis. 2017 Jul;100(1):31-35. PMID: 28873105.

Torres V, Herane MI, Costa A, Martin JP, Troielli P. Refining the ideas of “ethnic” skin. An Bras Dermatol. 2017 Mar-Apr;92(2):221-225. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20174846. PMID: 28538883; PMCID: PMC5429109.

Lawson CN, Hollinger J, Sethi S, Rodney I, Sarkar R, Dlova N, Callender VD. Updates in the understanding and treatments of skin & hair disorders in women of color. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2017 Feb 16;3(1 Suppl):S21-S37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.006. PMID: 28492036; PMCID: PMC5419061.

Herskovitz I, Miteva M. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2016 Aug 17;9:175-81. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S100816. PMID: 27574457; PMCID: PMC4993262.

Pandya AG, Alexis AF, Berger TG, Wintroub BU. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in dermatology: A call to action. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Mar;74(3):584-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2015.10.044. Epub 2016 Jan 8. PMID: 26774427.

Stiel L, Adkins-Jackson PB, Clark P, Mitchell E, Montgomery S. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women. Cancer Med. 2016 Mar;5(3):597-604. doi: 10.1002/cam4.613. Epub 2016 Jan 15. PMID: 26773423; PMCID: PMC4799949.

Vashi NA, de Castro Maymone MB, Kundu RV. Aging differences in ethnic skin. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016 Jan;9(1):31-8. PMID: 26962390; PMCID: PMC4756870.

Al-Dabagh A, Davis SA, McMichael AJ, Feldman SR. Rosacea in skin of color: Not a rare diagnosis. Dermatol Online J. 2014 Oct 15;20(10):13030/qt1mv9r0ss. PMID: 25526008.

Verma SM, Okawa J, Propert KJ, Werth VP. The impact of skin damage due to cutaneous lupus on quality of life. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Feb;170(2):315-21. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12653. PMID: 24111880; PMCID: PMC4878997.

Gelber AC, Manno RL, Shah AA, Woods A, Le EN, Boin F, Hummers LK, Wigley FM. Race and association with disease manifestations and mortality in scleroderma: a 20-year experience at the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2013 Jul;92(4):191-205. doi: 10.1097/MD.0b013e31829be125. PMID: 23793108; PMCID: PMC4553970.

Davis SA, Narahari S, Feldman SR, Huang W, Pichardo-Geisinger RO, McMichael AJ. Top dermatologic conditions in patients of color: an analysis of nationally representative data. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012 Apr;11(4):466-73. PMID: 22453583.

Heath CR, David J, Taylor SC. Sarcoidosis: Are there differences in your skin of color patients? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Jan;66(1):121.e1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2010.06.068. Epub 2011 Oct 14. PMID: 22000704.

Henderson MD, Abboud J, Cogan CM, Poisson LM, Eide MJ, Shwayder TA, Lim HW. Skin-of-color epidemiology: a report of the most common skin conditions by race. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012 Sep-Oct;29(5):584-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01775.x. Epub 2012 May 29. PMID: 22639933.

Hirano SA, Murray SB, Harvey VM. Reporting, representation, and subgroup analysis of race and ethnicity in published clinical trials of atopic dermatitis in the United States between 2000 and 2009. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012 Nov-Dec;29(6):749-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01797.x. Epub 2012 Sep 28. PMID: 23017105.

Hinds GA, Heald P. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Mar;60(3):359-75; quiz 376-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.10.031. PMID: 19231637.

Alexis AF, Sergay AB, Taylor SC. Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey. Cutis. 2007 Nov;80(5):387-94. PMID: 18189024.

Gelfand JM, Stern RS, Nijsten T, Feldman SR, Thomas J, Kist J, Rolstad T, Margolis DJ. The prevalence of psoriasis in African Americans: results from a population-based study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Jan;52(1):23-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2004.07.045. PMID: 15627076.

Taylor SC, Cook-Bolden F, Rahman Z, Strachan D. Acne vulgaris in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Feb;46(2 Suppl Understanding):S98-106. doi: 10.1067/mjd.2002.120791. PMID: 11807471.

Taylor SC, Kelly AP, Dupree NE, Kimball AB, Lawrence RC. Health disparities in arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases-the dermatology session: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, December 15-16, 2000. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Nov;47(5):770-3. doi: 10.1067/mjd.2002.124691. PMID: 12399772.

Digital Resources


For Professionals:

Print Resources


Errichetti, E., & Lallas, A. (2022). Dermoscopy in general dermatology for skin of color. Boca Raton: CRC Press.


Ankad, B. S., Mukherjee, S. S., & Nikam, B. P. (2021) Dermoscopy-histopathology correlation: A conspectus in the skin of colour. Singapore: Springer.

Donkor, C. M. Y. A., Aryee-Boi, J., Osazuwa, I. R., Afflu, F. K., & Alexis, A. F. (2021). Atlas of dermatological conditions in populations of African ancestry. Cham: Springer.

Li, B. S., & Maibach, H. I. (2021). Ethnic skin and hair and other cultural considerations. Cham: Springer.

Ranawaka, R. R., Kannagara, A. P., & Karawita, A. (2021). Atlas of dermatoses in pigmented skin. Singapore: Springer.

Relhan, V., Garg, V. K., Ghunawat, S., et al. (2021). Comprehensive textbook on vitiligo. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Shah, M. K., & Sheth, P. K. (2021). Pediatric dermatology in skin of color: A practical guide. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Vashi, N. A. (2021). Cultural practices and dermatoses. Cham: Springer.


Inamadar, A. C., & Palit, A. (2020). Systemic sclerosis: An illustrated guide to manifestation and management in Asian skin. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Lee, J. D., Lee, J. K., & Oh M. J. M. (2020). Principles and choice of laser treatment in dermatology: With special reference to the Asian population. Singapore: Springer Singapore.

Moiin, A. (2020). Atlas of black skin. Cham: Springer International.

Morrone, A., Hay, R. J., & Naafs, B. (2020). Skin disorders in migrants. Cham: Springer.

Mukwende, M., Tamony, P., & Turner, M. (2020). Mind the gap: A handbook of clinical signs in black and brown skin. London: St. George’s, University of London.


Aguh, C., & Okoye, G. A. (2018). Fundamentals of ethnic hair: The dermatologist’s perspective. Cham: Springer International.

Carniol, P. J., & Monheit, G. D. (2018). Aesthetic rejuvenation challenges and solutions: A world perspective. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Handog, E. B., & Enriquez-Macarayo, M. J. (2018). Melasma and vitiligo in brown skin. New Delhi: Springer India.

Kumarasinghe, P. (2018). Pigmentary skin disorders. Cham: Springer International.

Lenzy, Y. (2018). Getting to the root book: A dermatologist and cosmetologist’s guide to understanding HAIR! Massachusetts: Kingdom Root Publishing.

McMichael, A. J., & Hordinsky, M. K. (2018). Hair and scalp disorders: Medical, surgical, and cosmetic treatments. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Orfanos, C. E., Zouboulis, C. C., & Assaf, C. (2018). Pigmented ethnic skin and imported dermatoses: A text-atlas. Cham: Springer International.


Florian, M. C., Tomimori, J., Mendonça, S. B. M., & Rodrigues, D. A. (2017). Dermatological atlas of indigenous people. Cham: Springer International.

Vashi, N. A., & Maibach, H. I. (2017). Dermatoanthropology of ethnic skin and hair. Cham: Springer International.


Kelly, A. P., Taylor, S. C., Lim, H. W., & Anido, S. A. M.. (2016). Taylor and Kelly’s dermatology for skin of color (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Love, P. B., & Kundu, R. V. (2016). Clinical cases in skin of color: Adnexal, inflammation, infections, and pigmentary disorders. Cham: Springer International.

Love, P. B., & Kundu, R. V. (2016). Clinical cases in skin of color: Medical, oncological and hair disorders, and cosmetic dermatology. Cham: Springer International.

Silverberg, N.B., Duran-McKinster, C., & Tay Y. K. (2016). Pediatric skin of color. New York: Springer.


Chua, S. H., Goh, C. L., Ng, S. K., & Tan, S. H. (2014). Asian skin: A reference colour atlas of dermatology & venereology (2nd ed.). Singapore: McGraw Hill Education.

Jablonski, N. G. (2014). Living color – the biological and social meaning of skin color. California: University of California Press.

Jackson-Richards, D., & Pandya, A. G. (2014). Dermatology atlas for skin of color. Heidelberg: Springer.

Khumalo, N. P. (2014). African skin and hair disorders, an issue of dermatologic clinics. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Yusuf, S. M. (2014) African dermatology. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.


Alexis, A. F., & Barbosa, V. H. (2013). Skin of color: A practical guide to dermatologic diagnosis and treatment. New York: Springer.

Dadzie, O. E., Alexis, A. F., & Petit, A. (2013). Ethnic dermatology: principles and practice. West Sussex: John, Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Khopkar, U. S. (2012). Dermoscopy and trichoscopy in diseases of the brown skin: Atlas and short text. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher.

Lugo-Somolinos, A., & McKinley-Grant, L. (2012). VisualDx: Essential dermatology in pigmented skin. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Taylor, S. C., Gathers R. C., Badreshia-Bansai, S., et al. (2011). Treatments for skin of color. Edinburgh: Saunders/Elsevier.

Tay, Y.-K., & Chan, Y.-C. (2011). Textbook of laser and light dermatology in the Asian skin. Singapore: World Scientific.


Alam, M., Bhatia A. C., Kundu, R., et al. (2009). Cosmetic dermatology for skin of color. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Archer, C. B. (2009). Ethnic dermatology: Clinical problems and skin pigmentation (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Baron, E. D. (2009). Light-based therapies for skin of color. Dordrecht: Springer.


Goldberg, D. J. (2008). Lasers and lights: Volume 2: Rejuvenation, resurfacing, treatment of ethnic skin, and treatment of cellulite. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.

Grimes, P. E. (2008). Aesthetics and cosmetic surgery for darker skin types. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Persadsingh, N. (2008). The hair in black women. United States: Xulon Press.

Sheikh, A., & Gatrad, A.R. (2008) Caring for Muslim patients. Oxford: Radcliffe.


Berardesca, E., Leveque, J.-L., & Maibach, H. I. (2007). Ethnic skin and hair. New York: Informa Healthcare.


Connolly, C., & Bikowski, J. (2006). Dermatological atlas of black skin. Weybridge, Surrey: Merit Publishing International.

Halder, R. M. (2006). Dermatology and dermatological therapy of pigmented skins. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.


Downie, J., Cook-Bolden, F., & Nevins, T. B. (2005). Beautiful skin of color: A comprehensive guide to Asian, olive, and dark skin. New York: HarperCollins.


White, G. M. (2004). Color atlas of dermatology (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Mosby.


Leppard, B. (2002). An atlas of African dermatology. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press.

See More

Ng, S. K., & Goh, C. L. (2001). The principles and practice of contact and occupational dermatology in Asia Pacific region. River Edge, N.J: World Scientific.

Preciado, M. D. (1989). Practical dermatology in pigmented skin. London: Inn Publishing.

Johnson, J. B. L., Moy, R. L., & White, G. M. (1998). Ethnic skin: Medical and surgical. St. Louis: Mosby.

Archer, C. B., & Robertson, S. J. (1995). Black and white skin diseases: An atlas and text. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Parish, L. C., Millikan, L. E., & Amer, M. (1994). Global dermatology: Diagnosis and management according to geography, climate, and culture. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Schaller, K. F., & Bahmer, F. A. (1994). Colour atlas of tropical dermatology and venerology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Montagna, W., Kenney, J. A., & Prota, G. (1993). Black skin: Structure and function. San Diego: Academic Press.

Basset, A., Liautaud, B., Ndiaye, B., & Pembroke, A. (1986). Dermatology of black skin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rosen, T., & Martin, S. (1981). Atlas of Black dermatology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Updated May 13, 2022