- The childhood cerebral form occurs between ages 4 and 8. Affected patients may experience worsening cognitive skills, behavior issues, vision loss, dysphagia, seizures, and adrenal insufficiency. Deterioration is often rapid, with death often occurring between 6 months to 10 years after diagnosis.
- The adrenomyeloneuropathy type occurs between the second and fourth decade and is marked by progressive spastic paraparesis, spinal cord dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, urinary and genital disorders, and altered cognition and behavior. May lead to disability, and severe cases may cause early death.
- The last type is termed "Addison disease only." Typically presents before age 10, but can be diagnosed in adulthood. Adrenal insufficiency is the only presentation, with findings such as nausea, vomiting, weakness, and coma.
E71.529 – X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, unspecified type
65389002 – Adrenoleukodystrophy
- Metachromatic leukodystrophy
- Krabbe disease
- Alexander disease
- Canavan disease
- Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses
- Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
- Mitochondrial disorders, eg, Leigh syndrome
- Encephalitis, eg, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
- Brain tumor (eg, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma)
- Spinal cord tumor (eg, meningioma, medulloblastoma, metastases, ependymoma)
- Hereditary spastic paraparesis
- Multiple sclerosis
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder