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American trypanosomiasis in Adult
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American trypanosomiasis in Adult

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Contributors: Edith Lederman MD, Noah Craft MD, PhD, James H. Willig MD, MSPH
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Synopsis

American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, is caused by infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted during the bite of the bloodsucking reduviid, or kissing bug (also known as triatomine bug and cone-nosed bug). The parasite enters the host at the site of the bite, invades local tissue, and multiplies while spreading throughout the host. The life cycle is continued when an infected host is bitten by an uninfected insect. Transmission can also occur during blood transfusion or organ transplantation. Congenital transmission has been reported.

Natural transmission has been reported in the southern United States, in particular Texas, although the disease is much more prevalent in Mexico, Central America, and South America. Current disease control methods are significantly limiting the natural transmission in developing countries. Most primary cases in endemic areas occur in children aged younger than 10. Migration from endemic areas and rising rates of local transmission have led to an estimated 300 000 persons in the United States with chronic Chagas disease.

The disease consists of an acute illness that can be followed by chronic late sequelae in long-standing infections after years or decades. Late sequelae are a continued source of great morbidity. Risk factors include poor economic status and habitation or travel in rural areas.

Codes

ICD10CM:
B57.1 – Acute Chagas' disease without heart involvement

SNOMEDCT:
77506005 – American trypanosomiasis

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Therapy

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Last Updated: 12/31/2018
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American trypanosomiasis in Adult
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American trypanosomiasis (Acute) : Abdominal pain, Chest pain, Fever, Headache, Lymphadenopathy, Malaise, Anorexia, Myalgia, Pallor, Unilateral eye edema
Clinical image of American trypanosomiasis
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