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Aortic stenosis
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Aortic stenosis

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Contributors: Shea A. Nagle BA, Mary Anne Morgan MD, Michael W. Winter MD
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Synopsis

Aortic stenosis is the narrowing of left ventricular outflow through the aortic valve. It is the most prevalent cause of ventricular outflow obstruction, and it is increasing in prevalence as the population ages and life expectancy increases. Initial findings include exertional dyspnea, chest pain, fatigue, dizziness, syncope, and exertional angina. Some affected patients may be initially asymptomatic but develop symptoms as the disease progressively worsens.

Etiology includes accumulation of calcium in the aortic valve (most common in the elderly population), congenital abnormalities (ie, bicuspid aortic valve), rheumatic fever, chest radiotherapy, endocarditis, alkaptonuria, and familial hypercholesterolemia. Complications include heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, infectious endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, excessive bleeding, stroke, and other embolic events.

Treatment for mild cases is symptomatic. Intense physical activity should be limited. More severe cases require surgical repair. However, even mild cases have a 50% increase in 5-year risk of acute coronary syndrome and cardiovascular death. A minority of cases will present with acquired von Willebrand disease that improves with aortic valve replacement.

Codes

ICD10CM:
I35.0 – Nonrheumatic aortic (valve) stenosis

SNOMEDCT:
60573004 – Aortic valve stenosis

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Last Reviewed: 04/25/2019
Last Updated: 04/25/2019
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Aortic stenosis
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Aortic stenosis : Chest pain, Dizziness, Exertional dyspnea, Syncope, Systolic murmur, Orthopnea
Imaging Studies image of Aortic stenosis
Cardiac MRI without contrast demonstrates aortic stenosis.
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