Autism spectrum disorder
Clinical features include lack of social reciprocity, unawareness of others, and lack of interest and empathy for others. Patients may lack joint attention (social referencing), be unable to interpret nonverbal communication, or have difficulty with social relationships. They may exhibit restricting and repetitive behaviors, such as hand flapping, rocking, or walking on tiptoe. Affected individuals may be inflexible in specific daily routines or rituals. Many patients have aberrant sensory processing abilities highlighted by heightened sensitivity to texture, sounds, or touch. Other observed features include motor deficits, macrocephaly, speech difficulties (including nonverbal), and savant abilities.
Males are 4 times more likely to be affected. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has increased in recent years, although the underlying etiology is not well understood. There appear to be genetic factors and potentially environmental factors, although neither are clearly defined.
Affected patients will require specialist involvement and an individualized management plan.
F84.0 – Autistic disorder
408856003 – Autistic disorder
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls