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Blepharospasm - External and Internal Eye
See also in: Overview
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Blepharospasm - External and Internal Eye

See also in: Overview
Contributors: Jamie Adams MD, Richard L. Barbano MD, PhD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms of the orbicularis oculi resulting in excessive blinking and/or sustained contraction of the eyelids. The procerus and corrugator muscles are often involved as well. Symptoms are usually bilateral and symmetric. Dry eye and photophobia may be early symptoms, resulting in frequent blinking. In severe cases, it can result in functional blindness.

Blepharospasm associated with dystonic movements of other muscles in the face, neck, or limbs is known as Meige syndrome, with oromandibular dystonia being seen most commonly in these patients. Typical symptoms include excessive blinking and chin thrusting, although some individuals may also experience tongue protrusion, difficulty with opening the mouth, clenching or grinding of the teeth, jaw movements or pain, lip pursing, or platysma contraction. Symptoms can result in difficulty with speaking or swallowing.

The cause is unknown, although these movements may occur in the setting of tardive syndrome as a result of dopamine blocking medications. Peak onset of symptoms occurs at 50-60 years of age. These conditions are more common in women. There is no cure.

Codes

ICD10CM:
G24.5 – Blepharospasm

SNOMEDCT:
59026006 – Blepharospasm

Look For

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Diagnostic Pearls

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Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Best Tests

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Management Pearls

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Therapy

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Drug Reaction Data

Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.

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References

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Last Reviewed:12/14/2018
Last Updated:01/04/2019
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Blepharospasm - External and Internal Eye
See also in: Overview
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Blepharospasm : Photophobia, Eye irritation, Dry eyes
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