Burning mouth syndrome (oral dysesthesia, sore tongue, stomatodynia, and/or stomatopyrosis) is a chronic disorder characterized by burning and painful sensation in the oral cavity for at least 3 months. While the tongue is most commonly affected, the rest of the oral cavity may be affected as well. Primary burning mouth syndrome is idiopathic and is not associated with any underlying etiology. Secondary burning mouth syndrome is likely multifactorial, with numerous physiologic and/or psychosomatic factors at play. Reported systemic associations include nutritional, endocrine, allergic, autoimmune, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, psychiatric, and neurologic diseases. Several medications, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, have been implicated as well.
Burning mouth syndrome typically affects adults, with a strong predilection for women aged 40-60 years. The prevalence is estimated at 0.7%-15% of the population. Perimenopausal women are at a higher risk, especially 3 years prior to menopause and 12 years following menopause.
ICD10CM: K14.6 – Glossodynia
SNOMEDCT: 399165002 – Burning mouth syndrome
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
Atypical facial pain
Idiopathic facial arthromyalgia
Medication side effect
Connective tissue diseases, eg,
or other neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity
Lingual or mandibular nerves injury
Drug Reaction Data
Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.