Carotid artery dissection is tearing of the carotid artery wall between the intimal and medial layers, resulting in an abnormal collection of blood or intramural hematoma. May compromise the arterial blood flow, causing ischemic stroke. Painful condition. Characteristic findings include headache and/or neck pain on the side of the dissection, periorbital headache / pain, miosis, ptosis, amaurosis fugax, tinnitus, facial numbness, dysgeusia, tongue paresis, and syncope. Caused by a weakness in the arterial wall. Sometimes the result of blunt trauma to the neck or head as a result of a sports injury, strenuous exercise, whiplash, childbirth, or sexual intercourse. Certain conditions may compromise the strength of the arterial wall, including Marfan syndrome
, fibromuscular dysplasia
, atherosclerosis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type 4
, and homocystinuria
Initial treatment is typically anti-coagulation therapy.