Cerebral palsy (CP) encompasses a group of disorders resulting from brain injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (most commonly pre-, peri-, or postnatally), resulting in a nonprogressive dysfunction of muscle tone, posture, and/or movement.
CP is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with diverse etiologies. It is typically classified into 4 main types:
Spastic CP – This type is further subdivided into diplegic, hemiplegic, and quadriplegic depending on the distribution of motor abnormalities.
Dyskinetic CP – This includes dystonia and choreoathetosis.
Mixed CP – Dyskinetic and spastic elements are both present.