Cocaine use is associated with mucosal disease with subsequent painful ulcerations. As cocaine is absorbed through the mucosal membrane, it produces vasoconstriction, anesthesia, and local ischemic necrosis of the mucosal tissue (and sometimes the cartilage and bone). The pathology can occur in multiple organ systems, including the ocular, nasal, oral, and gastrointestinal systems, with serious sequelae such as perforations, fistula, and stricture formation. Agranulocytosis, which can occur secondary to cocaine (and the additive levamisole), contributes to superinfections.
(mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage)
Salivary gland neoplasms (, )
(especially from NSAIDs)
Inflammatory bowel disease (, )
Drug Reaction Data
Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.