Alerts and Notices
SynopsisConcussion is synonymous with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is a head injury with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13-15 accompanied by an alteration of brain function. The term concussion is also used in the medical literature to describe the constellation of symptoms following a mild TBI (ie, postconcussive syndrome).
Concussion most commonly results from direct contact injury to the head secondary to motor vehicle accidents, occupational hazards, falls, recreational accidents, contact sports, combat, and assault. Acceleration or deceleration forces can result in mild brain injury. Concussion occurs more commonly in younger patients (first 4 decades of life) and the incidence is more than 2 times higher in males than females.
Acute symptoms of a concussion occur as a result of disruption of neuronal function and include confusion and impaired awareness, amnesia, headache, dizziness, and incoordination. In the following hours to days, a postconcussion syndrome may develop, which is characterized by headaches, photophobia, phonophobia, attentional and mood disturbances, sleep dysregulation, and dizziness or vertigo. Focal neurologic deficits are uncommon and should prompt evaluation for other causes. Brain imaging in concussion is frequently normal, although imaging is imperative to rule out more severe traumatic injuries.
Related topic: pediatric abusive head trauma
S06.0X0A – Concussion without loss of consciousness, initial encounter
110030002 – Concussion injury of brain
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
- Epidural hematoma
- Subdural hematoma
- Cerebral contusion
- Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
- Skull fracture / basilar skull fracture
- Diffuse axonal injury
- Somatic symptom and related disorders