Cystoisospora belli has been associated with outbreaks of diarrheal disease in daycares and institutional settings. In patients with immune compromise, such as in patients with AIDS, leukemia, lymphoma, or solid organ transplantation, it can cause chronic diarrhea, though widespread use of trimethoprim-sulfamethiazole for Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis has reduced the prevalence of Cystoisospora.
Symptoms can range from self-limiting diarrhea to life-threatening dehydration. Maintaining hydration is important. Immunocompetent patients respond quickly to therapy, with a less rapid response in immunocompromised patients. Prophylaxis may be required in immunocompromised patients to prevent relapse.
A07.3 – Isosporiasis
14523006 – Infection caused by Isospora belli
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls