Dementia is strongly associated with advanced age. Cognitive decline typically occurs slowly and progressively for years before a diagnosis is made. Affected patients may notice difficulty with or changes in their behavior, reasoning, remembering new information, directions, and complex tasks, but family members may be the first to recognize the extent of the patient's difficulties.
Etiology includes Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson disease, brain injuries, brain tumors, and vascular disorders.
Potential risks of onset of dementia before the age of 80 have been associated with exposure to strong anticholinergic drugs. These include certain medications for the treatment of depression and epilepsy as well as antiparkinson and bladder antimuscarinic drugs. Reducing exposure to these medications in patients who are middle-aged or elderly can help mitigate risk.
Dementia-like symptoms that occur with alcohol use disorder or certain drugs or medications may be reversible. Otherwise, management is supportive.
Related topic: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration
F03.90 – Unspecified dementia without behavioral disturbance
52448006 – Dementia
- Drug toxicity
- Medication-induced dementia symptoms
- Chronic ethanol consumption (ie, alcohol use disorder)
- Lead poisoning
- Carbon monoxide poisoning
- Multi-infarct dementia
- Complex partial seizures
- Autoimmune encephalopathy
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
- Human immunodeficiency virus disease
- Vitamin B12 deficiency
- Normal pressure hydrocephalus
- Chronic subdural hematoma
- Hepatic encephalopathy
- Amyloid angiopathy
- Primary progressive aphasia
- Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration
Last Updated: 08/28/2019