Drug-induced depressive disorder
The estimated lifetime prevalence of drug-induced depression is 0.26%. People with drug-induced depression are more likely to report a family history of substance use, antisocial behavior, and stressful life events. Compared to individuals with major depressive disorder, people with drug-induced depression are more likely to report feelings of worthlessness, sleep pattern changes, and suicidal ideation than depressed mood. Type of medication and dose affect the likelihood of a patient developing depressive symptoms.
Substances and medications that have been shown to induce depressive symptoms include, but are not limited to, the following:
- Stimulants (eg, cocaine)
- Cardiovascular agents (clonidine, guanethidine, methyldopa, reserpine, beta blockers)
- Dermatologic agents (isotretinoin)
- Anticonvulsants (levetiracetam)
- Antimigraine medications (triptans)
- Hormonal agents (corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, tamoxifen)
- Immunological agents (interferons)
F32.89 – Other specified depressive episodes
191495003 – Drug-induced depressive state
- Primary depressive disorders (eg, major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder) – It is important to distinguish the etiology of depressive symptoms and chronology of substance or medication use.
- Substance use disorder or withdrawal – Extent of depressive symptoms must be distinguished from what would usually be expected with use of a given substance.
- Depression secondary to a medical condition – Including Parkinson disease, hypothyroidism, and myriad other conditions.