Pulmonary teratomas are generally large, benign cystic lesions. They usually present in the upper lobes. These are most commonly composed of skin, hair, adipose, thymic, bronchial, pancreatic, cartilaginous, and neural tissue. Malignant tumors contain anaplastic cells. When the bronchi are involved, patients can develop obstruction, bronchiectasis, lung abscesses, recurrent pneumonia, and fistulas. Rarely, these lesions may rupture. Cases of endobronchial teratomas have been described in children, without predilection for sex.
Prognosis is excellent for mature teratomas, and surgery is considered curative.
D38.1 – Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of trachea, bronchus and lung
254627002 – Carcinoid tumor of lung
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Infectious – pneumonia, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis
- Cancer – metastatic teratoma, metastatic choriocarcinoma, pulmonary blastoma, pulmonary angiomyolipoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, carcinosarcoma, neural sheath tumors, lymphoma, thymoma, thyroid cancer
- Bronchial polyps
- Pneumoconiosis – coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, silicosis, berylliosis
- Pulmonary fibrosis, mediastinal fibrosis, hilar fibrosis, retroperitoneal fibrosis
- Sarcoidosis, histiocytosis
- Autoimmune – rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus
- Genetic / congenital – cystic fibrosis, Kartagener syndrome, bronchopulmonary foregut malformation
- Radiation pneumonitis
- Foreign body aspiration