Endometriosis of lung
Common presenting symptoms include pneumothorax, hemothorax, or hemoptysis, with recurrent episodes aligning with the patient's menstrual cycle. Of note, symptoms may not be associated with the patient's menstrual cycle in a minority of cases, particularly with pneumothorax.
The pathogenesis of endometrial tissue development in the thoracic cavity is still unclear. Most women with endometriosis in the lung also have a history of pelvic endometriosis. While formerly considered very rare, it may be an underdiagnosed cause of spontaneous pneumothorax in women. Rarely, thoracic endometriosis may present with solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules.
Treatment of endometriosis of the lung is similar to treatment in the pelvis. Oral contraceptive pills or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists may relieve symptoms. Surgical resection of endometrial implants through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is also effective.
Related topic: Cutaneous endometriosis
N80.8 – Other endometriosis
50993001 – Endometriosis of Lung
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Spontaneous pneumothorax
- Cystic fibrosis
- Apical bleb rupture
- Arteriovenous malformation and arteriovenous fistula
- Malignancy (particularly primary lung and metastasis to lung)
- Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Pneumonia (eg, viral, bacterial)
- Interstitial lung disease
- Pulmonary embolism
- Mitral stenosis
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Goodpasture syndrome
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
- Drug side effect (eg, cocaine, anticoagulants)