Endophthalmitis - External and Internal Eye
Patients most at risk for endophthalmitis are those who have had previous eye trauma or surgery. Fungal endophthalmitis is most commonly found following severe eye trauma or severe corneal ulcer infections. There has been concern in recent years of an increased incidence of endophthalmitis, ranging from 0.1% to 0.18%, that appears to be associated with clear corneal nonsutured temporal incision cataract surgery. Rupture of the posterior lens capsule during cataract surgery is associated with an increased risk of endophthalmitis. The patient's external eyelid skin and lashes provide the major sources of infection during intraocular surgery.
Endogenous endophthalmitis occurs when microorganisms cross the blood-ocular barrier and multiply within the eye. An immunocompromised state, endocarditis, and other systemic infections increase one's risk of endogenous endophthalmitis. Many patients with endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis have prolonged courses of disease due to initial misdiagnosis. Visual outcomes are typically poor, often resulting in blindness of the affected eye.
Patients typically present acutely with pain and loss of vision. With more subacute or chronic infections, blurred vision can be the presenting symptom, or the patient can be asymptomatic.
The critical sign on eye examination is that there is inflammation in the vitreous. Often there will be a poor view of the fundus due to vitreous inflammation. There may also be a hypopyon in the anterior chamber, which can be a collection of pus and/or inflammatory cells.
H44.19 – Other endophthalmitis
1847009 – Endophthalmitis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
Drug Reaction Data