Female breast cancer
Risk factors associated with breast cancer include genetic predisposition (eg, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, TP53 mutations; very large studies show that mutations in dozens of genes may be associated with increased breast cancer risk), increasing age, Northern European descent, obesity in postmenopausal women, family history of breast / ovarian / peritoneal cancer, and personal history of ovarian, breast, or peritoneal cancer.
In countries with established screening programs, the majority of breast cancers present due to abnormal mammogram findings. Despite this, almost 1 in 6 women who are diagnosed with breast cancer present with a breast mass not detected by mammogram, and a little under 1 in 3 will present with a mass that developed in the interval between mammograms.
Breast cancer typically presents as a painless, immobile breast lump or abnormality found on mammography. In more advanced cases, it can present with bloody nipple discharge, axillary lymphadenopathy, thickening and erythema of the skin (peau d'orange appearance), and metastatic disease commonly found in bone, liver, and lungs. Metastasis to the bone marrow may be associated with anemia. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is considered a precursor lesion and is confined to breast ducts and lobules.
The diagnosis of breast cancer is made based on malignant-appearing cells found on biopsy. The treatment of breast cancer varies according to stage of disease as well as histologic and genetic subtype of the malignancy. Common histologic subtypes include infiltrating ductal carcinoma, infiltrating lobular carcinoma, and mixed ductal / lobular carcinoma. Tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) is used to predict outcomes and guide treatment.
Related topic: cutaneous breast cancer
C50.919 – Malignant neoplasm of unspecified site of unspecified female breast
254837009 – Malignant tumor of breast
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
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