Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy develops secondary to mesangial deposition of IgA and is a common primary cause of glomerulonephritis. Peak age of presentation is in the second and third decade, although patients may present at any age. The disease is more common in males than in females, with the greatest frequency in individuals of Northern European or Asian descent. There is also an increased risk of IgA nephropathy in patients with celiac disease.
Patients may present in any of the following ways:
Recurrent hematuria following viral pharyngeal or gastrointestinal tract infections
Asymptomatic detection of hematuria and proteinuria on routine screening
Rapidly progressive disease with associated edema, hypertension, hematuria, and renal insufficiency
In children, it may present with IgA vasculitis (formerly Henoch-Schönlein purpura) after a viral infection.
ICD10CM: N02.8 – IgA nephropathy
SNOMEDCT: 236407003 – Immunoglobulin A nephropathy
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
– Would usually be associated with history of group A streptococcal infection rather than viral infection.
Staphylococcus-associated – Would usually be associated with staphylococcus infection rather than viral infection.
Thin basement membrane nephropathy – Usually associated with family history.
C3 glomerulopathy – Associated with elevated C3 levels.
– Often presents with bacterial gastrointestinal tract infection and diarrhea.
– Presents with hematuria, sensorineural hearing loss, vision problems, and family history.
Goodpasture disease () – Presents with hemoptysis.
(Wegener granulomatosis) – Presents with chronic sinusitis and cough, c-ANCA associated, patients in remission may develop IgA nephropathy.
– Presents with purpura and cough, p-ANCA associated.
(formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) – Presents with asthma and sinusitis, p-ANCA associated.
– Associated with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or low levels of C3.
Drug Reaction Data
Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.