Historically, it was believed that the potential pathophysiology was related to damage to the urothelium provoking an inflammatory response. Potential triggers were thought to include infection, pelvic surgery, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, bladder overdistention, pelvic floor injury, and spinal cord issues. Currently, the etiology is less clear, and interstitial cystitis is grouped with other chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This condition can occur at any age, although it is seen most often at midlife and more commonly in females.
Patients will present with symptoms of dysuria, increased urinary frequency and urgency, pelvic pain and pressure, as well as possible dyspareunia. Most commonly, patients will report pain with the bladder being full, which is relieved upon emptying.
Symptom onset is usually gradual over a number of months. Sometimes a triggering event can be identified, but more often the onset is insidious.
N30.10 – Interstitial cystitis (chronic) without hematuria
197834003 – Chronic interstitial cystitis
- Urinary tract infection – Pain with urination, not with being full
- Endometriosis – Cyclic pelvic pain and dyspareunia
- Vulvodynia – Nerve condition causing pain with intercourse
- Kidney stones / bladder stones
- Pudendal neuralgia
- Pelvic floor muscle dysfunction
- Overactive bladder – Reason for voiding is to prevent incontinence, not to relieve / prevent pain.
- Malignancy of the bladder or genital tract (eg, cervical, prostate)