Kwashiorkor in Infant/Neonate
Although predominantly a disorder of developing countries, cases of kwashiorkor in the United States have been described in children in extreme poverty or with presumed food allergies on faddish or avoidance diets. Kwashiorkor usually presents in infancy or early childhood, typically soon after the child has been weaned off breast milk. The clinical findings of kwashiorkor must be distinguished from those of other nutritional deficiencies, and any underlying disease, including malabsorption, immune deficiencies, and infections, must be ruled out.
Related topic: malnutrition
E40 – Kwashiorkor
58262005 – Kwashiorkor
- Pellagra (niacin deficiency) – The dermatitis of pellagra tends to involve sun-exposed skin, while the dermatitis of kwashiorkor favors the trunk, groin, buttocks, and areas of pressure or friction.
- Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency
- Hereditary acrodermatitis enteropathica or acquired zinc deficiency
- Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
- Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
- Langerhans cell histiocytosis
- Essential fatty acid deficiency
- Riboflavin deficiency (notable for cheilosis, which may show overlap with severe kwashiorkor)
- Cystic fibrosis
- Infectious gastroenteritis (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, Clostridium difficile)
- Inflammatory bowel syndrome (eg, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis)