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Laryngeal cancer
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Laryngeal cancer

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Contributors: Madeline Goosmann, Christine Osborne MD, Paul C. Bryson MD
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Synopsis

Laryngeal cancer is the 11th most common cancer, with an annual incidence of 3.7 per 100 000 people worldwide. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngeal cancer can affect the supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic areas of the larynx. It more commonly affects men, with a 3.8:1 ratio, and usually occurs in the 5th or 6th decade of life. Risk factors for laryngeal cancer include smoking, alcohol use, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and laryngopharyngeal reflux.

Signs and symptoms of laryngeal cancer include:
  • Hoarseness
  • Dysphagia
  • Dysphonia / aphonia
  • Dyspnea
  • Sore throat
  • Globus sensation
  • Cachexia
  • Halitosis
  • Neck mass
  • Blood-tinged sputum
  • Otalgia
  • Stridor
  • Middle ear effusion
Symptoms will slowly worsen as malignancy grows.

Laryngeal cancer can be staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) system, based on the extent of the main tumor, the spread to nearby lymph nodes, and metastasis to distant sites. The staging system can be found at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/laryngeal-and-hypopharyngeal-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/staging.html.

Immunocompromised Patient Considerations:
Immunocompromised patients will generally have more aggressive malignancies even in the absence of classic risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol use.

Codes

ICD10CM:
C32.9 – Malignant neoplasm of larynx, unspecified

SNOMEDCT:
363429002 – Malignant tumor of larynx

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Last Reviewed: 09/06/2019
Last Updated: 09/19/2019
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Laryngeal cancer
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Laryngeal cancer : Hoarseness, Neck mass, Dysphagia, Dysphonia, Dyspnea, Hemoptysis, Pharyngitis, Smoker, Chronic cough
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.